Advertisement

Applying multivariate statistics for identification of groundwater resources and qualities in NW Turkey

  • Timuçin EverestEmail author
  • Hasan Özcan
Article
  • 71 Downloads

Abstract

This study, performed in Çanakkale-Ezine in NW of Turkey, analyzes the physicochemical properties of 37 groundwater wells. These 37 wells were chosen to represent each geological unit in the study area. The main purpose of the study and its contribution to the literature is to produce information about the resources and availability of groundwater by using multivariate statistical methods and lithology. For determination hydrochemical facies of groundwater, Piper trilinear diagram was used. Gibbs diagram was applied for determining the mechanism of groundwater chemistry and diagram showed that the interaction of rock-water is more dominant in the study area. Multivariate statistics were applied to physicochemical properties for identification origins of waters. According to the Piper diagram, 16 of the wells were identified as Ca-HCO3 type, 13 of them as Ca-Cl type, 5 of them as mixed Ca-Mg-Cl type, 2 of them as Na-Cl type, and 1 as Ca-Na-HCO3 type. In the study with the purpose of determining the resources of groundwater, the physicochemical properties of the wells are analyzed with hierarchical cluster (HCA) and non-hierarchical cluster (K-means) methods, and the resources are associated with the lithology based on these methods. A total of 37 wells are divided into five different clusters through the HCA method. Further, for the interpretation of the resources of the groundwater, the facies of the waters on the Piper diagram are evaluated based on the five clusters generated through the HCA method and on the lithology. In the study, the results obtained from the K-means method are not significant and in line with the lithology for the interpretation of the resources of the groundwater. In conclusion, this study with limited dataset reveals that using HCA method is very effective to identify the origins of groundwater and present the association with lithology.

Keywords

Hierarchical cluster analyses Lithology Water origins Interpretation Quality 

Notes

References

  1. APHA-AWWA-WPCF 3110. (1992). Standard methods for examination of water and waste water (18th ed.). Washington, DC: APHA-AWWA-WPCF.Google Scholar
  2. Ayalew, E. (2009). Growing lake with growing problems: integrated hydrogeological investigation on Lake Beseka, Ethiopia. (Published doctoral dissertation). University of Bonn, Germany.Google Scholar
  3. Babiker, I. S., Mohamed, M. A., & Hiyama, T. (2007). Assessing groundwater quality using GIS. Water Resources Management, 21(4), 699–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bastrakov, E. N., Jaireth, S., & Mernagh, T.P. (2010). Solubility of uranium in hydrothermal fluids at 25 to 300 C. Geosci Austral Rec, 29.Google Scholar
  5. Belkhiri, L., Boudoukha, A., Mouni, L., & Baouz, T. (2010). Application of multivariate statistical methods and inverse geochemical modeling for characterization of groundwater. A- case study: Ain Azel plain (Algeria). Geoderma, 159(3–4), 390–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brhane, G. K., (2016) Irrigation Water Quality Index and GIS Approach based Groundwater Quality Assessment and Evaluation for Irrigation Purpose in Ganta Afshum Selected Kebeles, Northern Ethiopia. International journal of Emerging Trends in Science and Technology Google Scholar
  7. Caritat, D. P., & Saether, O.M. (1997). Chemical changes attending water cycling through a catchment—An overview. In Geochemical processes, weathering and groundwater recharge in catchments (pp. 381–391). Balkema Dordrecht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  8. Chen, M., Price, R. M., Yamashita, Y., & Jaffé, R. (2010). Comparative study of dissolved organic matter from groundwater and surface water in the Florida coastal Everglades using multi-dimensional spectrofluorometry combined with multivariate statistics. Applied Geochemistry, 25(6), 872–880.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cloutier, V., Lefebvre, R., Savard, M. M., & Therrien, R. (2010). Desalination of a sedimentary rock aquifer system invaded by Pleistocene Champlain Sea water and processes controlling groundwater geochemistry. Environmental Earth Sciences, 59(5), 977–994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cooke, D. R., Deyell, C. L., Waters, P. J., Gonzales, R. I., & Zaw, K. (2011). Evidence for magmatic-hydrothermal fluids and ore-forming processes in epithermal and porphyry deposits of the Baguio district, Philippines. Economic Geology, 106(8), 1399–1424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dahiya, S., Singh, B., Gaur, S., Garg, V. K., & Kushwaha, H. S. (2007). Analysis of groundwater quality using fuzzy synthetic evaluation. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 147(3), 938–946.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dedzo, M. G., Tsozué, D., Mimba, M. E., Teddy, F., Nembungwe, R. M., & Linida, S. (2017). Importance of rocks and their weathering products on groundwater quality in central-East Cameroon. Hydrology, 4(2), 23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dibb, S. (1998). Market segmentation: strategies for success, marketing. Intelligence & Planning, 16/7, 394–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Domenico, P. A., & Schwartz, F. W. (1990). Physical and chemical hydrogeology (pp. 410–420). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  15. Everest, T., Taslı, T. C., Akbulak, C., & Sungur, A. (2017). Ecological risk assessment for protected areas: case of Troia historical national park, Canakkale–Turkey. FEB-Fresenius Environmental Bulletin. (26), 7463-7472.Google Scholar
  16. FAO. (1989). Water quality for agriculture. Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. FAO, Irrigation and Drainage Paper 29, Rome.Google Scholar
  17. Gaury, K. P., Meena, K. N., & Mahajan, A. K. (2018). Hydrochemistry and water quality of Rewalsar Lake of Lesser Himalaya, Himachal Pradesh, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 190, 84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ghesquière, O., Walter, J., Chesnaux, R., Rouleau, A.(2015) Scenarios of groundwater chemical evolution in a region of the Canadian Shield based on multivariate statistical analysis. Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies 4:246-266Google Scholar
  19. Gibbs, R. J. (1970). Mechanisms controlling world water chemistry. Science, 170, 1088–1090.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gong, X., & Richman, M. B. (1995). On the application of cluster analysis to growing season precipitation data in North America east of the Rockies. Journal of Climate, 8(4), 897–931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Güler, C., Thyne, G. D., McCray, J. E., & Turner, K. A. (2002). Evaluation of graphical and multivariate statistical methods for classification of water chemistry data. Hydrogeology Journal, 10(4), 455–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Han, D. M., Liang, X., Jin, M. G., Currell, M. J., Song, X. F., & Liu, C. M. (2010). Evaluation of groundwater hydrochemical characteristics and mixing behavior in the Daying and Qicun geothermal systems, Xinzhou Basin. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 189(1–2), 92–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hartigan, J. A. (1975). Clustering algorithms.Google Scholar
  24. Irenosen, O. G., Festus, A. A., & Coolborn, A. F. (2012). Water quality assessment of the Owena multi-purpose Dam, Ondo State, southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Protection, 3(01), 14–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Islam, A., R., M., T., Shen, S., Haque, M., A., Bodrud-Doza, Md., Maw, K., W., Habib, Md., A. (2018) Assessing groundwater quality and its sustainability in Joypurhat district of Bangladesh using GIS and multivariate statistical approaches. Environment, Development and Sustainability 20 (5):1935-1959Google Scholar
  26. Johnson, R. A., & Wichern, D. W. (1992). Applied multivariate statistical analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  27. Kukillaya, J. P., & Narayanan, T. (2014). Role of weathering of ferromagnesian minerals and surface water irrigation in evolving and modifying chemistry of groundwater in Palakkad district, Kerala, with special reference to its fluoride content. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 84(5), 579–589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Larson, T. S., & Scold, R. W. (1958). Laboratory studies relating mineral quality of water to corrosion of steel and cast iron. Corrosion, 16, 285.Google Scholar
  29. Ledesma-Ruiz, R., Pastén-Zapata, E., Parra, R., Harter, T., & Mahlknecht, J. (2015). Investigation of the geochemical evolution of groundwater under agricultural land: a case study in northeastern Mexico. Journal of Hydrology, 521, 410–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. McNeil, V. H., Cox, M. E., & Preda, M. (2005). Assessment of chemical water types and their spatial variation using multi-stage cluster analysis, Queensland, Australia. Journal of Hydrology, 310(1–4), 181–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mondal, N. C., Saxena, V. K., & Singh, V. S. (2005). Assessment of groundwater pollution due to tannery industries in and around Dindigul, Tamilnadu, India. Environmental Geology, 48(2), 149–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Moya, C., E., Raiber, M., Taulis, M., Cox, M., E. (2015) Hydrochemical evolution and groundwater flow processes in the Galilee and Eromanga basins, Great Artesian Basin, Australia: A multivariate statistical approach. Science of The Total Environment 508:411-426Google Scholar
  33. Nag, S. K., & Das, S. (2014). Quality assessment of groundwater with special emphasis on irrigation and domestic suitability in Suri I & II Blocks, Birbhum District, West Bengal, India. American Journal of Water Resources, 2(4), 81–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nobre, R. C. M., Rotunno Filho, O. C., Mansur, W. J., Nobre, M. M. M., & Cosenza, C. A. N. (2007). Groundwater vulnerability and risk mapping using GIS, modeling and a fuzzy logic tool. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 94(3–4), 277–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Okiongbo, K. S., Douglas, R. K. (2015) Evaluation of major factors influencing the geochemistry of groundwater using graphical and multivariate statistical methods in Yenagoa city, Southern Nigeria. Applied Water Science 5 (1):27-37Google Scholar
  36. Özcan, H., Ekinci, H., Baba, A., Kavdır, Y., Yüksel, O., & Yiğini, Y. (2007). Assessment of the water quality of Troia for the multipurpose usages. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 130(1–3), 389–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Owen, D., D. R., Cox, M., E., (2015) Hydrochemical evolution within a large alluvial groundwater resource overlying a shallow coal seam gas reservoir. Science of The Total Environment 523:233-252Google Scholar
  38. Peiyue, L., Hui, Q., & Jianhua, W. U. (2011). Hydrochemical formation mechanisms and quality assessment of groundwater with improved TOPSIS method in Pengyang County Northwest China. Journal of Chemistry, 8(3), 1164–1173.Google Scholar
  39. Piper, A. M. (1944). A graphical procedure in the geochemical interpretation of wateranalysis. Transactions American Geophysical Union, 25, 914–928.Google Scholar
  40. Ragunath, H. M. (1987). Groundwater (p. 563). New Delhi: Wiley Eastern Ltd.Google Scholar
  41. Rao, N. S. (2006). Seasonal variation of groundwater quality in a part of Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Environmental Geology, 49(3), 413–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sadashivaiah, C., Ramakrishnaiah, C. R., & Ranganna, G. (2008). Hydrochemical analysis and evaluation of groundwater quality in Tumkur Taluk, Karnataka State, India. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 5(3), 158–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Santos, G. O., Hernandez, F. B., Ferraudo, A. S., Vanzela, L. S., & Santos, D. J. (2017). A study of the impact of land use and occupation on basin water quality through multivariate statistics. Engenharia Agrícola, 37(3), 453–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sarkar, B. C., Mahanta, B. N., Saikia, K., Paul, P. R., & Singh, G. (2007). Geo-environmental quality assessment in Jharia coalfield, India, using multivariate statistics and geographic information system. Environmental Geology, 51(7), 1177–1196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sharp, J. M. (1988). Alluvial aquifers along major rivers. Hydrogeology. The Geological Society of North America, Boulder Colorado. 1988. p 273–282. 8 fig, 1 tab, 56 ref.Google Scholar
  46. Singh, K. P., Malik, A., Singh, V. K., Mohan, D., & Sinha, S. (2005). Chemometric analysis of groundwater quality data of alluvial aquifer of Gangetic plain, North India. Analytica Chimica Acta, 550(1), 82–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Štambuk-Giljanović, N. (1999). Water quality evaluation by index in Dalmatia. Water Research, 33(16), 3423–3440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Subramani, T., Elango, L., & Damodarasamy, S. R. (2005). Groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural use in Chithar River Basin, Tamil Nadu, India. Environmental Geology, 47(8), 1099–1110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Taş, İ., & Davarcı, B. (2017). Variation in groundwater quality of Bursa- İnegöl Plain throughout ten years period. Mediterranean Agricultural Sciences, 30(2), 143–149.Google Scholar
  50. Thilagavathi, R., Chidambaram, S., Prasanna, M. V., Thivya, C., & Singaraja, C. (2012). A study on groundwater geochemistry and water quality in layered aquifers system of Pondicherry region, southeast India. Applied Water Science, 2(4), 253–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. TMS. (2017). Turkey Meteorology Services. Meteorology General Directorate, Meteorological statistics data. www.mgm.gov.tr (Access date: 13.04.2018).
  52. Ullah, R., Malik, R. N., & Qadir, A. (2009). Assessment of groundwater contamination in an industrial city, Sialkot, Pakistan. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 3(12).Google Scholar
  53. Varol, S., Davraz, A., (2015) Evaluation of the groundwater quality with WQI (Water Quality Index) and multivariate analysis: a case study of the Tefenni plain (Burdur/Turkey). Environmental Earth Sciences 73 (4):1725-1744Google Scholar
  54. Vasanthavigar, M., Srinivasamoorthy, K., Vijayaragavan, K., Ganthi, R. R., Chidambaram, S., Anandhan, P., Manivannan, R., & Vasudevan, S. (2010). Application of water quality index for groundwater quality assessment: Thirumanimuttar sub-basin, Tamilnadu, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 171(1–4), 595–609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Voutsis, N., Kelepertzis, E., Tziritis, E., Kelepertsis, A., (2015) Assessing the hydrogeochemistry of groundwaters in ophiolite areas of Euboea Island, Greece, using multivariate statistical methods. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 159:79-92Google Scholar
  56. Ward, J. H., Jr. (1963). Hierarchical grouping to optimise an objective function. Journal of The American Statistical Association, 58, 236244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wedepohl, K. H. (1978). Handbook of geochemistry 11, sections 73. Berlin: B-G. Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  58. WHO. (1971). International standards for drinking water. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  59. WHO. (1983). Guidelines to drinking water quality. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  60. WHO. (1984). Guidelines for drinking water quality. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  61. Wilcox, L. V. (1984). The quality of water for irrigation uses. US Department of Agricultural Technical Bulletin 1962, Washington.Google Scholar
  62. Will, E., & Faust, J. E. (2005). Irrigation water quality for greenhouse production. Agricultural Extension Service, PB 1617, The University of Tennesse, USA.Google Scholar
  63. Woocay, A., & Walton, J. (2008). Multivariate analyses of water chemistry: surface and ground water interactions. Groundwater, 46(3), 437–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Lapseki Vocational SchoolÇanakkale Onsekiz Mart UniversityÇanakkaleTurkey
  2. 2.Faculty of Agriculture, Soil Science and Plant Nutrition DepartmentÇanakkale Onsekiz Mart UniversityÇanakkaleTurkey

Personalised recommendations