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Presence and distributions of POPS in soil, atmospheric deposition, and bioindicator samples in an industrial-agricultural area in Turkey

  • Asude HanedarEmail author
  • Elçin Güneş
  • Gül Kaykioğlu
  • Suna Özden Çelik
  • Evren Cabi
Article
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Abstract

In this study, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were detected in the soil, lichen pine needle, and total deposition samples in the Meriç-Ergene Basin, which is one of the most important regions in terms of industrial and agricultural activities in Turkey. POP concentrations were measured in 192 samples selected to represent four seasons over a 1-year period across four different regions: an intensive industrial area, an industrial + residential area, an agricultural area, and a background area. Total PAH concentrations are found in the range of 69.6–887.6 ng/g, 74.6–1277.7 ng/g, 113.4–588.9 ng/g, and 0.00–937.8 ng/m2-day; total PCB concentrations are 9.98–62.9 ng/g, 6.8–68.1 ng/g, 11.3–32.7 ng/g, and 0.00–144.4 ng/m2-day; total OCPs concentrations are 5.9–83.2 ng/g, 7.3–85.6 ng/g, 9.9–97.1 ng/g, and 0.00–137.6 ng/m2-day respectively for soil, lichen, pine needles, and bulk samples. The data were evaluated according to pollutant groups and spatial and temporal changes. The highest PAH and PCB values were detected in lichen samples from industrial areas. The highest OCP values were detected for total deposition and soil samples and in the agricultural area. The results showed that two- to three-ring PAHs, hepta-PCBs, and cyclodienes were the most widespread pollutant groups. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the accumulation and indication properties of the matrices in the study for 0.05 significance level. The pollutant group in which matrices are most similar is PAHs. Total deposition samples showed the most different pattern in terms of indications, especially for PCBs. For OCP results, the concentration values obtained in soil samples were different from all other matrices. It was determined that the indication properties of the matrices identified as pollutant indicators differ markedly from the pollutant type, and this difference is at the lowest level for PAH pollutants.

Graphical abstract

Keywords

POPs PAHs PCB OCP Meriç-Ergene Basin Bioindicator 

Notes

Funding

This study was supported by TUBITAK (Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey) under Grant Project No. 112Y070.

Supplementary material

10661_2018_7159_MOESM1_ESM.docx (295 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 295 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Asude Hanedar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Elçin Güneş
    • 1
  • Gül Kaykioğlu
    • 1
  • Suna Özden Çelik
    • 1
  • Evren Cabi
    • 2
  1. 1.Environmental Engineering Department, Corlu Engineering FacultyNamik Kemal UniversityCorluTurkey
  2. 2.Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Biology DepartmentNamik Kemal UniversityCorluTurkey

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