Bioaccumulation factors and multivariate analysis of heavy metals of three edible fish species from the Barekese reservoir in Kumasi, Ghana

  • Eric GyimahEmail author
  • Osei Akoto
  • John Kenneth Mensah
  • Nesta Bortey-Sam


The Barekese reservoir has seen persistent degradation for decades through anthropogenic activities within its catchment. In spite of this, heavy metal pollution profile of fish species of the reservoir is not well studied. Total concentrations of Hg, Cd, Ni, and Cr were analyzed in muscle tissues of 45 edible fish species comprising (Tilapia zilli, Oreochromis niloticus, and Heterotis niloticus) from the reservoir. The examined fish species showed varying bioaccumulative factors for detected metals. A PCA biplot revealed that Cd showed association with all examined fish species used in the study indicating that Cd in the reservoir is biologically available for uptake by all examined fish species. A dendrogram of cluster analysis also revealed that Cd and Cr are in one cluster indicating their associations and similarities to a common anthropogenic source. The study suggests that anthropogenic activities are possible sources of heavy metal pollution in the Barekese reservoir and, hence, the examined fish species could be used to monitor the levels of Ni, Cr, Hg, and Cd in the reservoir.


Bioindicator Coefficient of condition PCA biplot Toxic metal 



The authors of this study are grateful to the Ghana Water Company Limited, Barekese for their kind courtesies and for permitting the use of their resources for this study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Disclosure statement

No conflict of interest associated with authors in this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryKwame Nkrumah University of Science and TechnologyKumasiGhana
  2. 2.Laboratory of Toxicology, Graduate School of Veterinary MedicineHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan

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