Persistence and metabolism of carbofuran in the soil and sugarcane plant

  • Thirumalaiandi RamasubramanianEmail author
  • Mariappan Paramasivam


Persistence and metabolism of carbofuran in the soil and sugarcane plant were studied under tropical sugarcane ecosystem. Residues of carbofuran and its metabolites in the soil, sugarcane leaf, and juice were determined by employing matrix-specific sample preparation methods and gas chromatography equipped with mass spectrometry. The recoveries of carbofuran, 3-keto carbofuran, and 3-hydroxy carbofuran were in the range of 88.75 ± 2.58–100.25 ± 2.38, 90.38 ± 2.61–98.24 ± 4.78, and 89.25 ± 3.11–98.10 ± 3.19%, respectively, at three levels of fortification across the three matrices involved in the study. At recommended dose (carbofuran 3% CG at 2 kg a.i./ha), the initial deposit of carbofuran in the soil was 14.390 ± 1.727 μg/g. The total residues comprising both carbofuran and 3-hydroxy carbofuran were detected up to 105 days after treatment with the half-life of 10.83 days. The parent compound and its metabolite were detected and quantified in the sugarcane plant (leaves and juice) from 14 days after application of carbofuran in the soil. The total residues (carbofuran and 3-hydroxy carbofuran) were detected in the leaves and cane juice up to 75 and 30 days after treatment, respectively.


Sugarcane Carbofuran Metabolites Residues Dissipation 



The first author is grateful to Dr. Bakshi Ram, Director, ICAR-Sugarcane Breeding Institute, and Dr. R. Viswanathan, Head, Division of Crop Protection, for their constant encouragement and support in carrying out this research. The technical support rendered by Mrs. C. Yogambal, Technical Assistant (Entomology), in imposing treatments, sampling, and sample preparation deserves appreciation and acknowledgement.


  1. Anastassiades, M., Lehotay, S. J., Štajnbaher, D., & Schenck, F. J. (2003). Fast and easy multiresidue method employing acetonitrile extraction/partitioning and “dispersive solid-phase extraction” for the determination of pesticide residues in produce. Journal of AOAC International, 86(2), 412–431.Google Scholar
  2. Battu, R. S., Kalra, R. L., & Dhillon, R. S. (2000). Estimation of residues of carbofuran and its metabolites in sugarcane and soil by derivatization with 1-fluoro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene and gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection. Journal of AOAC International, 83(3), 569–578.Google Scholar
  3. Central Insecticide Board & Registration Committee. (2015). Major uses of pesticides registered under the Insecticides Act, 1968. Accessed 27 April 2016.
  4. Chen, L., Jia, C., Zhao, E., He, M., Yu, P., & Zhu, X. (2011). Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis of carbofuran and its metabolite 3-hydroxy-carbofuran in maize and soil in field. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 42, 1316–1323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Codex Alimentarius Commission. (1993). Guide to Codex Maximum Limits for Pesticide Residues, Part 2. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.Google Scholar
  6. Department of Agriculture and Cooperation. (2015). Agricultural statistics at a glance 2014. Oxford University Press. 452p.Google Scholar
  7. European Commission. (2010). Guidance document on pesticide residue analytical methods. Document No. SANCO/825/00/rev. 8.1/16/11/2010. Accessed 21 November 2015.
  8. Hoskins, W. M. (1961). Mathematical treatment of loss of pesticide residues. Plant Protection Bulletin. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 9, 163–168.Google Scholar
  9. National Pesticide Information Center. (2017). Available at Accessed 23 October 2017.
  10. Ramasubramanian, T., & Paramasivam, M. (2017). Determination and dissipation of fipronil and its metabolites in/on sugarcane crop. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 97(11), 1037–1052.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thirumalaiandi Ramasubramanian
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mariappan Paramasivam
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Crop ProtectionICAR-Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Indian Council of Agricultural ResearchCoimbatoreIndia
  2. 2.Pesticide Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Agricultural EntomologyTamil Nadu Agricultural UniversityCoimbatoreIndia

Personalised recommendations