Evaluation of the effectiveness of red mud-supported catalysts in combination with ozone and TiO2 in the treatment of solution containing benzene, toluene, and xylene

  • Bernardo Alves de Lima
  • Pedro Paulo Rocha de Castro
  • Alexandre Boscaro França
  • Eduardo Prado Baston
  • Renata Carolina Zanetti Lofrano
  • Gisella Rossana Lamas Samanamud
  • Carla Cristina Almeida Loures
  • Luzia Lima Rezende Naves
  • Fabiano Luiz Naves


Ozone and a Fe2+/TiO2-based catalyst were examined in the degradation of a synthetic solution of benzene toluene and xylene (BTX) in an advanced oxidation process (AOP). The catalyst beads were made from the slurry waste of aluminum production process, by inserting the TiO2 content and subsequent calcination. The reduction of the BTX concentration load was monitored by the reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and BTX concentration. Different levels were used on factors: pH, time of treatment, initial concentration of BTX, and percentage of TiO2. The process was conducted in a bubble column reactor with the insertion of catalyst beads. A response surface methodology technique (CCD) was used to build a model based on COD reduction results. The model was optimized using the normal-boundary intersection (NBI) algorithm to maximize COD reduction and minimize the variance attributed to the process. Optimization led to COD reductions of 80% in 2 h of experiment. Correlation analysis of coefficient models from experimental data R2adj was 0.9966, showing a good fit of model data. In the optimized conditions, the possible increase of the biodegradability ratio of the BTX solution, through the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and COD, was also analyzed. Under pre-treatment conditions, the BOD/COD ratio was 0.13. After the treatment, it increased to 0.56.

Graphical abstract


Red mud Catalyst Ozonation Optimization Fenton 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernardo Alves de Lima
    • 1
  • Pedro Paulo Rocha de Castro
    • 1
  • Alexandre Boscaro França
    • 1
  • Eduardo Prado Baston
    • 1
  • Renata Carolina Zanetti Lofrano
    • 1
  • Gisella Rossana Lamas Samanamud
    • 2
  • Carla Cristina Almeida Loures
    • 3
  • Luzia Lima Rezende Naves
    • 4
  • Fabiano Luiz Naves
    • 1
    • 5
  1. 1.Chemical Engineering and Statistics DepartmentFederal University of Sao João Del ReiSão João del ReiBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of Texas at San Antonio, UTSASan AntonioUSA
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical Engineering (DEPMC)Federal Center for Technological EducationAngra dos ReisBrazil
  4. 4.University Center of Lavras, UNILAVRASLavrasBrazil
  5. 5.Ouro BrancoBrazil

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