Variation and relationship of THMs between tap water and finished water in Yancheng City, China

  • Yumin WangEmail author
  • Guangcan Zhu
  • Bernard Engel


In this paper, spatial and temporal variations of trihalomethane (THM) concentrations were analyzed including chloroform trichloromethane (TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM), and tribromomethane (TBM) in Yancheng City in Jiangsu Province, China. The water samples were collected monthly from January 2014 to January 2017 from four tap water sampling sites (S1, S2, S3, and S4) and two finished water sampling sites (WTP1 and WTP2) for THM analysis. The results showed that the mean concentrations during the study period for TCM, BDCM, DBCM, and TBM were 7, 15.9, 21, and 10.4 μg/L in tap water samples and 3.2, 17.2, 22.7, and 10 μg/L in finished water samples, which indicated that brominated THM concentrations were higher than chlorinated THM concentrations. The results of spatial analysis showed that THM concentrations in WTP1 were related to those in S1 and S4 and THM concentrations in WTP2 were related to those in S2 and S3. The concentrations of TCM, BDCM, and TBM have significant spatial variance, while DBCM and THM concentrations do not. The temporal analysis revealed that the highest THM concentration occurred in April, both in tap water and in finished water, which was also shown by temporal cluster analysis. The lowest THM concentration occurred in seasons with relatively lower temperature in all sampling sites. The results provide important information for environmental protection agencies and health care centers with emphasis on months with higher THM risk.


Trihalomethanes Drinking water Cluster analysis 



This work was funded by the Special S & T Project on Treatment and Control of Water Pollution from the Bureau of Housing and Urban–Rural Development of Jiangsu Province (Grant No. 2014ZX07405002).


  1. Alvarez, O. Q., Tagle, M. E., Pascual, J. L., Marin, M. T., Clemente, A. C., Medina, M. O., et al. (2014). Evaluation of spatial and temporal variations in marine sediments quality using multivariate statistical techniques. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 186(10), 6867–6878.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrianou, X. D., Charisiadis, P., Andra, S. S., & Makris, K. C. (2014). Spatial and seasonal variability of urinary trihalomethanes concentrations in urban settings. Environmental Research, 135, 289–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baytak, D., Sofuoglu, A., Inal, F., & Sofuoglu, S. C. (2008). Seasonal variation in drinking water concentrations of disinfection by-products in IZMIR and associated human health risks. The Science of the Total Environment, 407(1), 286–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brown, D., Bridgeman, J., & West, J. R. (2011). Predicting chlorine decay and THM formation in water supply systems. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, 10(1), 79–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chang, E. E., Lin, Y. P., & Chiang, P. C. (2001). Effects of bromide on the fromation of THMs and HAAs. Chemosphere, 2001(43), 1029–1034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chang, H. H., Tung, H. H., Chao, C. C., & Wang, G. S. (2010). Occurrence of haloacetic acids (HAAs) and trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water of Taiwan. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 162(1–4), 237–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Charisiadis, P., Andra, S. S., Makris, K. C., Christophi, C. A., Skarlatos, D., Vamvakousis, V., Kargaki, S., & Stephanou, E. G. (2015). Spatial and seasonal variability of tap water disinfection by-products within distribution pipe networks. The Science of the Total Environment, 506-507, 26–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dominguez-Tello, A., Arias-Borrego, A., Garcia-Barrera, T., & Gomez-Ariza, J. L. (2015). Seasonal and spatial evolution of trihalomethanes in a drinking water distribution system according to the treatment process. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187(11), 662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. El-Attafia, B., & Soraya, M. (2017). Presence and seasonal variation of trihalomethanes (THMs) levels in drinking tap water in Mostaganem Province in Northwest Algeria. Electronic Physician, 9(5), 4364–4369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. EPA. (2010). Comprehensive disinfectants and disinfection byproducts rules (Stage 1 and Stage 2): Quick reference guide. Table 2: Regulated contaminants and disinfectants. EPA 816-F-10-080. Washington, D.C.; EPAGoogle Scholar
  11. Fakour, H., Lo, S. L., & Lin, T. F. (2016). Impacts of typhoon Soudelor (2015) on the water quality of Taipei, Taiwan. Scientific Reports, 6, 25228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Guilherme, S., & Rodriguez, M. J. (2015). Short-term spatial and temporal variability of disinfection by-product occurrence in small drinking water systems. The Science of the Total Environment, 518-519, 280–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Huang, H., Zhu, H., Gan, W., Chen, X., & Yang, X. (2017). Occurrence of nitrogenous and carbonaceous disinfection byproducts in drinking water distributed in Shenzhen, China. Chemosphere, 188, 257–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lee, J., Kim, E. S., Roh, B. S., Eom, S. W., & Zoh, K. D. (2013). Occurrence of disinfection by-products in tap water distribution systems and their associated health risk. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185(9), 7675–7691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Li, X. F., & Mitch, W. A. (2018). Drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and human health effects: Multidisciplinary challenges and opportunities. Environmental Science & Technology, 52(4), 1681–1689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mercier Shanks, C., Serodes, J. B., & Rodriguez, M. J. (2013). Spatio-temporal variability of non-regulated disinfection by-products within a drinking water distribution network. Water Research, 47(9), 3231–3243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. MHPRC. (2006). Standard for drinking water quality (GB5749–2006). Table 3: Limitations for unconventional water quality index (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  18. Muangthong, S., & Shrestha, S. (2015). Assessment of surface water quality using multivariate statistical techniques: Case study of the Nampong River and Songkhram River, Thailand. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187(9), 548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Rodriguez, M. J., & Se’rodes, J.-B. (2001). Spatial and tempatial evolution of thihalomethanes in three water distribution systems. Water Research, 35(6), 1752–1786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. SEPA. (GB18918–2002). Environmental quality standards for surface water (GB3828–2002). Table 3: Limitations for water quality index (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  21. Shi, A. (2013). Application of artificial wetland treatment Technology in Centralized Drinking Water Source Project. Journal of Environmental Science and Management, 38(9), 45–47 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  22. Shrestha, S., & Kazama, F. (2007). Assessment of surface water quality using multivariate statistical techniques: A case study of the Fuji river basin, Japan. Environmental Modelling & Software, 22(GB5749-2006), 464–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Wei, J., Ye, B., Wang, W., Yang, L., Tao, J., & Hang, Z. (2010). Spatial and temporal evaluations of disinfection by-products in drinking water distribution systems in Beijing, China. The Science of the Total Environment, 408(20), 4600–4606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Yang, D. (2010). "Daily water demand forecast and research and application on optimal layout of monitoring points." Master dissertation of Qingdao Tchnological University (in Chinese).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Energy and EnvironmentalSoutheast UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.Department of Agricultural and Biological EngineeringPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA

Personalised recommendations