Land use/land cover change and its impacts on protected areas in Mengla County, Xishuangbanna, Southwest China
- 209 Downloads
Land use/land cover change (LUCC) in tropical areas threatens biodiversity and protected area integrity and then affects global ecosystem functions and services. In this study, the spatiotemporal patterns and processes of LUCC in Mengla County, Xishuangbanna, which is located on the northern edge of tropical Asia, were examined using a modified post-classification change detection technique based on random forest classifiers and Landsat images acquired at a 5-year time interval (e.g., 1994, 1999, 2004, 2009, and 2014) from 1994 to 2014, with a special focus on protected areas and their surroundings. The overall accuracies of land use/land cover classification reached 90.13–97.90%, with kappa coefficients of 0.84–0.96. Massive but decelerating conversion from forests to artificial plantations has occurred in recent decades. From 1994 to 2014, the area of plantations increased by 1833.85 km2, whereas that of forests decreased by 1942.67 km2. The expanded areas of artificial plantations decreased from 158.41 km2 per year in 1994–1999 to 59.70 km2 per year in 2009–2014. More considerable transformation from forests to artificial plantations occurred in lowland areas with elevations below 1000 m and at the edges of National Nature Reserves, which observed a forest loss rate of greater than 40% between 1994 and 2014. This poses serious challenges for sustaining both protected areas and surrounding human communities and to solve the increasingly escalating human-elephant conflicts. The complex food, biodiversity, and land use nexus in this region remain to be untangled in future study.
KeywordsLand use/land cover change (LUCC) Post-classification comparison Artificial plantation Protected areas Southwest China
The authors would like to thank an anonymous reviewer for both insightful and constructive comments.
This study was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41461017), the National Key R&D Plan of China (2016YFA0601601), the Candidates of the Young and Middle-Aged Academic Leaders of Yunnan Province (2014HB005), and the Program for Excellent Young Talents of Yunnan University.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Chen, Y., Marino, J., Chen, Y., Tao, Q., Sullivan, C. D., Shi, K., & Macdonald, D. W. (2016). Predicting hotspots of human-elephant conflict to inform mitigation strategies in Xishuangbanna, Southwest China. PLoS One, 11(9), e0162035. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0162035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Feng, L., & Zhang, L. (2005). Habitat selection by Asian elephant(Elephas maximus) in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, China. Acta Theriologica Sinica, 25(3), 229–236 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
- Fu, Y., Brookfield, H., Guo, H., Chen, J., Chen, A., & Cui, J. (2009). Smallholder rubber plantation expansion and its impact on local livelihoods, land use and agrobiodiversity, a case study from Daka, Xishuangbanna, southwestern China. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, 16(1), 22–29. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504500902753246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Grogan, K., Pflugmacher, D., Hostert, P., Roberts, K., & Fensholt, R. (2015). Cross-border forest disturbance and the role of natural rubber in mainland Southeast Asia using annual Landsat time series. Remote Sensing of Environment, 169, 438–453. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2015.03.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Guo, H. J., Christine, P., Kevin, C., Chen, A. G., & Fu, Y. N. (2002). Economic development, land use and biodiversity change in the tropical mountains of Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, Southwest China. Environmental Science and Policy, 5(6), 471–479. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1462-9011(02)00093-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hamilton, C. M., Martinuzzi, S., Plantinga, A. J., Radeloff, V. C., Lewis, D. J., Thogmartin, W. E., Heglund, P. J., & Pidgeon, A. M. (2013). Current and future land use around a nationwide protected area network. PLoS One, 8(1), 12. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hansen, A. J., De Fries, R., & Turner, W. (2004). Land use change and biodiversity: a synthesis of rates and consequences during the period of satellite imagery. In G. Gutman, A. C. Janetos, C. O. Justice, E. F. Moran, J. F. Mustard, R. R. Rindfuss, et al. (Eds.), Land change science: observing, monitoring, and understanding trajectories of change on the Earth’s surface (Vol. 6, pp. 277–299). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hansen, M. C., Potapov, P. V., Moore, R., Hancher, M., Turubanova, S. A., Tyukavina, A., Thau, D., Stehman, S. V., Goetz, S. J., Loveland, T. R., Kommareddy, A., Egorov, A., Chini, L., Justice, C. O., & Townshend, J. R. G. (2013). High-resolution global maps of 21st-century forest cover change. Science, 342(6160), 850–853. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1244693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jensen, J. R. (2004). Introductory digital image processing: a remote sensing perspective (digital change detection). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
- Jin, Y. (2018). LUCC modeling in the mountainous region of tropical northern margin based on CLUE-S model: a case study in Mengla Master’s thesis, Yunnan University. (in Chinese with English abstract) Kunming.Google Scholar
- Liao, C., Li, P., Feng, Z., & Zhang, J. (2014). Area monitoring by remote sensing and spatiotemporal variation of rubber plantations in Xishuangbanna. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering, 30(22), 170–180. (in Chinese with English abstract). https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1002-6819.2014.22.021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Liu, X. N., Feng, Z. M., Jiang, L. G., Peng, L. I., Liao, C. H., Yang, Y. Z., et al. (2013). Rubber plantation and its relationship with topographical factors in the border region of China, Laos and Myanmar. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 23(6), 1019–1040. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-013-1060-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Liu, X. N., Feng, Z. M., Jiang, L. G., & Zhang, J. H. (2014). Spatial-temporal pattern analysis of land use and land cover change in Xishuangbanna. Resources Science, 36(2), 233–244 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
- Radeloff, V. C., Stewart, S. I., Hawbaker, T. J., Gimmi, U., Pidgeon, A. M., Flather, C. H., Hammer, R. B., & Helmers, D. P. (2010). Housing growth in and near United States protected areas limits their conservation value. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107(2), 940–945. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0911131107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rodriguez-Galiano, V. F., Chica-Olmo, M., Abarca-Hernandez, F., Atkinson, P. M., & Jeganathan, C. (2012). Random Forest classification of Mediterranean land cover using multi-seasonal imagery and multi-seasonal texture. Remote Sensing of Environment, 121(138), 93–107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2011.12.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rodriguez-Galiano, V. F., Ghimire, B., Rogan, J., Chica-Olmo, M., & Rigol-Sanchez, J. P. (2012). An assessment of the effectiveness of a random forest classifier for land-cover classification. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 67(1), 93–104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2011.11.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sadali, N. H. (2013). Determinant of volatility natural rubber price. Social Science Electronic Publishing. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2276767.
- Senf, C., Pflugmacher, D., Van Der Linden, S., & Hostert, P. (2013). Mapping rubber plantations and natural forests in Xishuangbanna (Southwest China) using multi-spectral phenological metrics from MODIS time series. Remote Sensing, 5(6), 2795–2812. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs5062795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Turner, B. L., Lambin, E. F., & Reenberg, A. (2007). The emergence of land change science for global environmental change and sustainability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(52), 20666–20671. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0704119104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Vester, H. F. M., Lawrence, D., Eastman, J. R., Turner II, B. L., Calme, S., Dickson, R., et al. (2007). Land change in the southern Yucatan and Calakmul biosphere reserve: effects on habitat and biodiversity. Ecological Applications, 17(4), 989–1003. https://doi.org/10.1890/05-1106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Xu, J. C., Jefferson, F., John, B. V., Zhang, P. F., Fu, Y. S., Yang, L. X., et al. (2005). Land-use and land-cover change and farmer vulnerability in Xishuangbanna prefecture in southwestern China. Environmental Management, 36(3), 404–413. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-003-0289-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Xu, J. T., Yi, Y. Y., Köhlin, G., Xu, J. T., & Berck, P. (2014). Property rights, tenure security and forest investment incentives: evidence from China’s collective forest tenure reform. Environment and Development Economics, 19(1), 48–73. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355770X13000272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yuan, F., Sawaya, K. E., Loeffelholz, B. C., & Bauer, M. E. (2005). Land cover classification and change analysis of the twin cities (Minnesota) metropolitan area by multitemporal Landsat remote sensing. Remote Sensing of Environment, 98(2–3), 317–328. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2005.08.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zong, J. K., Liu, S. Q., Xu, H. L., Wang, L. X., & Guo, X. M. (2014). Population size and distribution changes of Asian elephant in Menglazi nature reserve, Xishuangbanna nature reserve. Forest Invenory and Planning, 39(1), 89–93 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar