Low-dose action of tryptanthrin and its derivatives against developing embryos of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius

  • Irina G. AgafonovaEmail author
  • Taisiya V. Moskovkina


Nine tryptanthrin derivatives, including tryptanthrin itself, were synthesized using different methods, including oxidation of the corresponding isatins to obtain 14, the reaction of tryptanthrin 1 with hydrazine and its derivatives to obtain 57, and aldol condensation of 1 with acetone and methylethylketone to obtain 8 and 9. The action of 1–9 in doses corresponding to the IC50 against developing embryos of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius and in the sperm test allowed us to estimate to potency of all the compounds and to determine which were cytotoxic. In addition, these studies showed that compounds 3, 4, 8, and 9 had a stimulatory effect at lower doses. In particular, the tryptanthrin derivatives stimulated the larval stages of development in surviving embryos at concentrations lower than the IC50.


Thryptanthrin Sea urchin embryos Cytotoxicity Stimulatory effects 



This study was partially supported by a grant from the Russian Scientific Fund (project no. 14-25-00037) and FEBRAS Grant No. 15 - I - 5- 006.


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.G. B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Far Eastern BranchRussian Academy of SciencesVladivostokRussian Federation
  2. 2.Far Eastern Federal UniversityVladivostokRussian Federation

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