Low-dose action of tryptanthrin and its derivatives against developing embryos of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius
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Nine tryptanthrin derivatives, including tryptanthrin itself, were synthesized using different methods, including oxidation of the corresponding isatins to obtain 1–4, the reaction of tryptanthrin 1 with hydrazine and its derivatives to obtain 5–7, and aldol condensation of 1 with acetone and methylethylketone to obtain 8 and 9. The action of 1–9 in doses corresponding to the IC50 against developing embryos of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius and in the sperm test allowed us to estimate to potency of all the compounds and to determine which were cytotoxic. In addition, these studies showed that compounds 3, 4, 8, and 9 had a stimulatory effect at lower doses. In particular, the tryptanthrin derivatives stimulated the larval stages of development in surviving embryos at concentrations lower than the IC50.
KeywordsThryptanthrin Sea urchin embryos Cytotoxicity Stimulatory effects
This study was partially supported by a grant from the Russian Scientific Fund (project no. 14-25-00037) and FEBRAS Grant No. 15 - I - 5- 006.
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