Evaluation of metal removal efficiency and its influence in the physicochemical parameters at two sewage treatment plants
- 54 Downloads
In sewage treatment plants, physicochemical parameters are highly controlled since treated sewage can be returned to water bodies or reused. In addition, pollutants such as heavy metals also deserve attention due to their potential toxicity. In general, these characteristics of sewage and treated water are evaluated independently, with the support of Brazilian legislation that does not require a routine for the analysis of metals as frequent as for the physicochemical parameters. In this work, 66 samples of raw sewage, treated sewage, and effluents from two treatment plants in the city of Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil, were evaluated to assess the efficiency of the treatment plants in the removal of metals. In addition, the influence of these pollutants on the quantification of physicochemical parameters was evaluated. The quantification of metals was performed using inductively coupled plasma optical spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and Spearman’s test was applied to evaluate correlation between physicochemical parameters and metal content. The main metals found in the samples were Ba, Mn, Zn, Cu, Se, Fe, and Al. The results indicate that concentrations of metals in the aquatic environment can significantly affect the physicochemical parameters, since high concentrations of metals can interfere mainly in the pH, chemical oxygen demand, and dissolved oxygen.
KeywordsHeavy metal Physicochemical parameters Sewage treatment plant
The authors thank to Elieni G. Pinheiro and Gabriel A. Canevari for the technical assistance.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- APHA (2005). Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater. United States of America, American Public Healthy Association.Google Scholar
- CETESB (2013). Ficha de Informação Toxicológica. Divisão de Toxicologia, Genotoxicidade e Microbiologia Ambiental. Google Scholar
- CONAMA (2005). Resolução CONAMA N° 357/2005 Publicação DOU n° 053, de 18/03/2005, Ministério do meio ambiente, Conselho nacional do meio ambiente.Google Scholar
- CONAMA (2011). Resolução CONAMA N° 430/2011 Publicação DOU n° 92, de 16/05/2011, pág. 89 Ministério do meio ambiente, Conselho nacional do meio ambiente.Google Scholar
- Conover, W. (1980). Practical nonparametric statistic. New York, John Whiley & Sons.Google Scholar
- de Vives, A. E. S., Moreira, S., Brienza, S. M. B., Medeiros, J. G. S., Filho, M. T., Zucchi, O. L. A. D., & Filho, V. F. N. (2006). Monitoring of the environmental pollution by trace element analysis in tree-rings using synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence. Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy, 61(10–11), 1170–1174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Esteves, F. A. (2011). Fundamentos De Limnologia, Editora Interciência.Google Scholar
- Fiorucci, A. R. and E. Benedetti-Filho (2005). A importância do oxigênio dissolvido em ecossistemas aquáticos. Química nova na escola 22: 10–16.Google Scholar
- Förstner, U. and G. T. W. Wittmann (2012). Metal pollution in the aquatic environment, Springer Science & Business Media.Google Scholar
- IBGE (2016). Estimativas da população residente nos municípios brasileiros, Ministério do Planejamento, Desenvolvimento e Gestão.Google Scholar
- Jordão, C.P., Pereira, M.G., et al. (2005). Influence of domestic and industrial waste discharges on water quality at Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society 16(2), 241–250.Google Scholar
- Oliveira, B. S. S., & Cunha, A. C. (2014). Correlação entre qualidade da água e variabilidade da precipitação no sul do Estado do Amapá. Revista Ambiente & Água, 9(2), 261–275.Google Scholar
- Vasconcellos, P. C., Balasubramanian, R., Bruns, R. E., Sanchez-Ccoyllo, O., Andrade, M. F., & Flues, M. (2007). Water-soluble ions and trace metals in airborne particles over urban areas of the state of Sao Paolo, Brazil: Influences of local sources and long range transport. Water Air and Soil Pollution, 186(1–4), 63–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Von-Sperling, M., Chernicharo, C. A. L. (2005). Biological wastewater treatment in warm climate regions. London: IWA Publishing.Google Scholar