Genotoxic effects following exposure to air pollution in street vendors from a high-traffic urban area
- 49 Downloads
Workers in several occupational environments are exposed to pollutants. Street vendors, for example, typically work in a high-traffic urban environment and are exposed to numerous air pollutants, including genotoxic substances emitted by motor vehicles. This study examined the genotoxic effects of exposure to air pollution. We conducted cytological analyses to assess frequencies of micronucleated (MN) and binucleated (BN) cells in a sample of exfoliated oral mucosa cells. We compared street vendors and control subjects in the city of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and also collected quantitative information on exposure conditions of all test subjects, including concentrations of particulate matter. We found street vendors to exhibit higher frequencies of MN cells compared to the control group. We evaluated the effects of possible confounding variables on MN frequencies, namely the body mass index (BMI), age, as well as smoking and alcohol habits. Multiple linear regression analysis found no significant effects of any of those variables. Our results suggest that continued exposure to air pollution from traffic represents a major source of genotoxicity and raises concerns regarding disease prevention not only in street vendors but also other groups of people working in urban environments.
KeywordsMicronucleus assay Particulate matter Environmental assessment
Compliance with ethical standards
Our study was carried out in accordance with the ethical standards in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki. Our research protocol was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of Fundação Carmelitana Mário Palmério (FUCAMP) in Monte Carmelo, Minas Gerais, Brazil (number 1.599.783).
- Benbrahim-Tallaa, L., Baan, R. A., Grosse, Y., Lauby-Secretan, B., El Ghissassi, F., Bouvard, V., Guha, N., Loomis, D., Straif, K., & International Agency for Research on Cancer Monograph Working Group. (2012). Carcinogenicity of diesel engine and gasoline-engine exhausts and some nitroarenes. Lancet Oncology, 13, 663–664. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(12)70280-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Demircigil, G. Ç., Erdem, O., Gaga, E. O., Altuğ, H., Demirel, G., Özden, Ö., Arı, A., Örnektekin, S., Döğeroğlu, T., van Doorn, W., & Burgaz, S. (2014). Cytogenetic biomonitoring of primary school children exposed to air pollutants: micronuclei analysis of buccal epithelial cells. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 21, 1197–1207. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-013-2001-6. Epub 2013 Jul 25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gattas, G. J., Cardoso Lde, A., Medrado-Faria Mde, A., & Saldanha, P. H. (2001). Frequency of oral mucosa micronuclei in gas station operators after introducing methanol. Occupational Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1093/occmed/51.2.107.
- Hallare, A. V., Gervasio, M. K., Gervasio, P. L., & Acacio-Claro, P. J. (2009). Monitoring genotoxicity among gasoline station attendants and traffic enforcers in the City of Manila using the micronucleus assay with exfoliated epithelial cells. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 156, 331–341. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-008-0488-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kausar, A., Giri, S., Mazumdar, M., Giri, A., Roy, P., & Dhar, P. (2009). Micronucleus and other nuclear abnormalities among betel quid chewers with or without sadagura, a unique smokeless tobacco preparation, in a population from North-East India. Mutation Research, 677, 72–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2009.05.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Khayat, C. B., Costa, E. O., Gonçalves, M. W., Da Cruz Cunha, D. M., da Cruz, A., de Araújo Melo, C. O., Bastos, R. P., da Cruz, A., & de Melo Silva, D. (2013). Assessment of DNA damage in Brazilian workers occupationally exposed to pesticides: a study from Central Brazil. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 20, 7334–7340. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-013-1747-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Marconi, A., Cattani, G., Cusano, M., Ferdinandi, M., Inglessis, M., Viviano, G., Settimo, G., & Forastiere, F. (2007). Two-years of fine and ultrafine particles measurements in Rome, Italy. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 70, 213–221. https://doi.org/10.1080/15287390600883174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mariani, R. L., Jorge, M. P. M., Pereira, S. S., Melione, L. P., Carvalho-Oliveira, R., Ma, T. H., & Saldiva, P. H. N. (2009). Association between micronuclei frequency in pollen mother cells of Tradescantia and mortality due to cancer and cardiovascular diseases: a preliminary study in São José dos Campos, Brazil. Environmental Pollution, 157, 1767–1770. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2009.02.023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Minasi, L. B., Costa, E. O., Silva, D. M., Melo, C. O., de Almeida, J. G., Vieira, T. C., Silva Júnior, R. L., Ribeiro, C. L., da Silva, C. C., & da Cruz, A. D. (2011). Cytogenetic damage in the buccal epithelium of Brazilian aviators occupationally exposed to agrochemicals. Genetics and Molecular Research, 10, 3924–3929. https://doi.org/10.4238/2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pereira, B. B., Campos Junior, E. O., & Morelli, S. (2013). In situ biomonitoring of the genotoxic effects of vehicular pollution in Uberlândia, Brazil, using a Tradescantia micronucleus assay. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 87, 17–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2012.10.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pereira, B. B., Campos Junior, E. O., Lima, E. A. P., Barrozo, M. A., & Morelli, S. (2014). Biomonitoring air quality during and after a public transportation strike in the center of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Brazil by Tradescantia micronucleus bioassay. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 21, 3680–3685. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-013-2335-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pereira, B. B., da Cunha, P. B., Silva, G. G., de Campos Júnior, E. O., Morelli, S., Filho, C. A., de Lima, E. A., & Barrozo, M. A. (2017). Integrated monitoring for environmental health impact assessment related to the genotoxic effects of vehicular pollution in Uberlândia. Brazil. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 24, 2572–2577. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-8039-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rufo, J. C., Madureira, J., Paciência, I., Slezakova, K., Pereira, M. d. C., Pereira, C., Teixeira, J. P., Pinto, M., Moreira, A., & Fernandes, E. d. O. (2015). Exposure of children to ultrafine particles in primary schools in Portugal. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 78, 904–914. https://doi.org/10.1080/15287394.2015.1048866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Stojić, S. S., Stanišić, N., Stojić, A., & Šoštarić, A. (2016). Single and combined effects of air pollutants on circulatory and respiratory system-related mortality in Belgrade, Serbia. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 79, 17–27. https://doi.org/10.1080/15287394.2015.1101407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Viegas, S., Mateus, V., Almeida-Silva, M., Carolino, E., & Viegas, C. (2013). Occupational exposure to particulate matter and respiratory symptoms in Portuguese swine barn workers. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 76, 1007–1014. https://doi.org/10.1080/15287394.2013.831720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhang, X., Duan, H., Gao, F., Li, Y., Huang, C., Niu, Y., Gao, W., Yu, S., & Zheng, Y. (2015). Increased micronucleus, nucleoplasmic bridge, and nuclear bud frequencies in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of diesel engine exhaust-exposed workers. Toxicological Sciences, 143, 408–417. https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfu239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar