Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

A new pin nematode, Paratylenchus sinensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Paratylenchinae) in the rhizosphere of white mulberry from Zhejiang Province, China

  • 30 Accesses


Pin nematode species are widely distributed and known to be associated with damage to a variety of shrubs, grasses, fruit and flowering trees. So far, no pin nematode species has been reported from Mulberry in China. During this study, a new Paratylenchus species recovered from the rhizosphere of mulberry tree, in Zhejiang Province is described and molecularly characterized. The species can be characterized by having swollen and slender females, four incisures in the lateral field, lip region conoid with anterior end flattened and without submedian lobes. The slender females have stylet 56.2 (50–62) μm long, excretory pore located at the level of nerve ring; vulval region with small advulval flap; tail conoid gradually tapers to form a finely pointed terminus. The swollen females comparatively larger than slender females, vulval lips enlarged, protruding and bulges out from the body contour, the tail is shorter than the slender female ending in a finely pointed terminus. The male is devoid of stylet, spicule 17.5 (16.8–18.2) μm long. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial 18S, ITS and D2-D3 expansion segments of the 28S rRNA gene sequences revealed that this new species grouped within paratylenchid species clade. Morphologically, this new species belongs to the Group 10 of Paratylenchus sensu lato (stylet >40 μm, 4 lateral lines and advulval flaps present).

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8


  1. Adams, R. E., & Eichenmuller, J. J. (1962). Gracilacus capitatus n. sp. from scarlet oak in West Virginia. Nematologica, 8(2), 87–92.

  2. Akyazi, F., Felek, A. F., Cermak, V., Cudejkova, M., Foit, J., Yildiz, S., & Hanel, L. (2015). Description of Paratylenchus (Gracilacus) straeleni (De Coninck, 1931) Oostenbrink, 1960 (Nematoda: Criconematoidea, Tylenchulidae) from hazelnut in Turkey and its comparison with other world populations. Helminthologia, 52(3), 270–279.

  3. Allen, M. W., & Jensen, H. J. (1950). Cacopaurus epacris, new species (Nematoda: Criconematidae), a nematode parasite of California black walnut roots. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 17(1), 10–14.

  4. Andrássy, I. (2007). Free-living nematodes of Hungary, II (Nematoda errantia). Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest, 496 pp.

  5. Brown, G.L. (1959). Three new species of the genus Paratylenchus from Canada (Nematoda: Criconematidae). Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 26, 1–8.

  6. Brzeski, M. W., & Radzikowska, A. (1980). Pathogenicity of Paratylenchus bukowinensis on parsley. Zeszytyproblemowe Postepów Nauk Rolniczych, 232, 45–53.

  7. Brzeski, M. W. (1963). Paratylenchus macrodorus n. sp. (Nematoda: Paratylenchidae), a new plant parasitic nematode from Poland. Bulletin de I’Académie Polonaise des Sciences. Classe II, 11, 277–280.

  8. Brzeski, M. W. (1975). Pathogenicity of Paratylenchus bukowinensis Micol. On celery. Roczniki Nauk Rolniczych, Seria, E5, 23–29.

  9. Brzeski, M. W. (1995). Paratylenchinae: Morphology of some known species and descriptions of Gracilacus bilineata sp. n. and G. vera sp. n. (Nematoda: Tylenchulidae). Nematologica, 41(4), 535–565.

  10. Brzeski, M.W. (1998). Nematodes of Tylenchina in Poland and temperate Europe. Warszawa, Poland, Muzeum I Instytut Zoologii PAN, 397 pp.

  11. Castresana, J. (2000). Selection of conserved blocks from multiple alignments for their use in phylogenetic analysis. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 17(4), 540–552.

  12. Cid del Prado Vera, I., & Maggenti, A. R. (1988). Description of Gracilacus hamicaudata sp. n. (Nemata: Criconematidae) with biological and histopathological observations. Revue de Nématologie, 11(1), 29–33.

  13. Cobb, N. A. (1923). Notes on Paratylenchus, a genus of nemas. Journal of the Washington Academy and Sciences, 13, 254–257.

  14. Corbett, D. C. M. (1966). Central African nematodes. II. Paratylenchus crenatus n. sp. (Nematoda: Criconematidae) from Malawi. Nematologica, 12(1), 101–104.

  15. Darriba, D., Taboada, G. L., Doallo, R., & Posada, D. (2012). jModelTest 2: More models, new heuristics and parallel computing. Nature Methods, 9, 772.

  16. De Coninck, L. A. P. (1931). Sur trois espèces nouvelles de nématodes libres trouvés en Belgique. Bulletin du Musée royal d'histoire naturelle de Belgique, 7(11), 1–5.

  17. De Grisse, A. T. (1969). Redescription ou modification de quelques techniques utilisées dans l’étude des nematodes phytoparasitaires. Mededelingen van de Rijksfaculteit der Landbouwwetenschappen Gent, 34, 351–369.

  18. De Ley, P., Félix, M. A., Frisse, L. M., Nadler, S. A., Sternberg, P. W., & Thomas, W. K. (1999). Molecular and morphological characterisation of two reproductively isolated species with mirror-image anatomy (Nematoda: Cephalobidae). Nematology, 1(16), 591–612.

  19. Decraemer, W., & Hunt, D. J. (2006). Structure and classification. In R. N. Perry & M. Moens (Eds.), Plant nematology (pp. 3–32). Wallingford: CABI Publishing.

  20. Esmaeili, M., Heydari, R., Castillo, P., Ziaie-Bidhendi, M., & Palomares-Rius, J. E. (2016). Molecular characterisation of two known species of Paratylenchus Micoletzky, 1922 from Iran with notes on the validity of Paratylenchus audriellus Brown, 1959. Nematology, 18(5), 591–604.

  21. Esser, R. P. (1992). A diagnostic compendium to species included in Paratylenchinae Thorne, 1949 and Tylenchocriconematinae Raski & Siddiqi, 1975 (Nematoda: Criconematoidea). Nematologica, 38(2), 146–163.

  22. Flora of China (2013). Morus alba Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 986. 1753 http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200006379.

  23. Ganguly, S., & Khan, E. (1990). Gracilpaurus corbetti gen. N., sp. n. (Nematoda: Tylenchida: Paratylenchidae) from India with a key to the species of this genus. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 8(2), 65–71.

  24. Geraert, E. (1965). The genus Paratylenchus. Nematologica, 11(13), 301–334.

  25. Ghaderi, R., Kashi, L., & Karegar, A. (2014). Contribution to the study of the genus Paratylenchus Micoletzky, 1922 sensu lato (Nematoda: Tylenchulidae). Zootaxa, 3814, 151–187.

  26. Golden, A. M. (1961). Paratylenchus steineri (Criconematidae) a new species of plant nematode. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 28(1), 9–11.

  27. Goodey, T. (1963). Soil and freshwater nematodes, revised by J.B. Goodey, London, 544 pp.

  28. Hall, T. A. (1999). BioEdit: A user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for windows 95/98/ NT. Nucleic Acids Symposium Series, 41, 95–98.

  29. He, X. B., Xie, Z. Q., Nan, H. W., & Bao, Y. H. (2007). Developing ecological economy of sericulture and vegetation restoration the water-level-fluctuating zone of the three gorges reservoir. Science and Technology Review, 25(23), 59–63 (in Chinese).

  30. Huang, C. S., & Raski, D. J. (1986). Four new species of Gracilacus Raski, 1962 (Criconematoidea: Nemata). Revue de Nématologie, 9(4), 347–356.

  31. Huelsenbeck, J. P., & Ronquist, F. (2001). Mrbayes: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees. Bioinformatics, 17(8), 754–755.

  32. Jairajpuri, M. S. (1982). Three new species of nematodes from sugarcane fields in Nigeria. Revue de Nématologie, 5(2), 241–246.

  33. Jenkins, W. R. (1956). Paratylenchus projectus, new species (Nematoda: Criconematidae), with a key to the species of Paratylenchus. Journal of the Washington Academy of Science, 46(9), 296–298.

  34. Jenkins, W. R. (1964). A rapid centrifugal-flotation method for separating nematodes from soil. Plant Disease Reporter, 48, 692.

  35. Jenkins, W. R. (1960). Paratylenchus marylandicus n. sp. (Nematoda: Criconematidae) associated with roots of pine. Nematologica, 5(3), 175–177.

  36. Jenkins, W. R., & Taylor, D. P. (1956). Paratylenchus dianthus n. sp. (Nematoda, Criconematidae), a parasite of carnation. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 23, 124–127.

  37. Joyce, S., Reid, A., Driver, F., & Curran, J. (1994). Application of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods to identification of entomopathogenic nematodes, in Burnell, A. M., Ehlers, R. U., and Masson, J. P. (Eds), COST 812 biotechnology: Genetics of entomopathogenic nematode-bacterium complexes. Proceedings of symposium & workshop, St. Patrick’s college, Maynooth, co. Kildare, Ireland, European Commission, DG XII, Luxembourg, pp. 178–87.

  38. Katoh, K., & Standley, D. M. (2013). MAFFT multiple sequence alignment software version 7: Improvements in performance and usability. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 30(4), 772–780.

  39. Kashi, L., Karegar, A., & Kheiri, A. (2009). Paratylenchus paraperaticus sp. n. (Tylenchida: Tylenchulidae) found in the rhizosphere of walnut trees in Hamadan province, Iran. Nematology, 11(5), 641–647.

  40. Li, Y., Wang, K., Xie, H., & Xu, C. L. (2019). Morphology and molecular analysis of Paratylenchus chongqingensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Paratylenchinae) from soil associated with Ophiopogon japonicus in China. European journal of Plant Pathology, 154, 597–605. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-019-01684-4.

  41. Liu, Y. (2011). Application prospect of mulberry plants to vegetation restoration in the three gorges reservoir area, Science of Sericulture, 37(1), 93–97, 2011 (in Chinese).

  42. Liu, Y., & Willison, J. H. M. (2013). Prospects for cultivating white mulberry (Morus alba) in the drawdown zone of the three gorges reservoir. China Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 20, 7142–7151.

  43. Liu, Y., & Willison, J. H. M. (2016). Cropping mulberry (Morus alba) in the drawdown zone of the three gorges reservoir. Environmental Pollution and Protection, 1, 81–88.

  44. Luc, M., & de Guiran, G. (1962). Deux nouveaux Paratylenchus (Nematoda-Criconematidae) de Còte d’ivoire. Nematologica, 7(2), 133–138.

  45. Maggenti, A. R., Luc, M., Raski, D. J., Fortuner, R., & Geraert, E. (1988). A reappraisal of Tylenchina (Nemata) 11. List of generic and supra-generic taxa, with their junior synonyms. Revue de Nématologie, 11(2), 177–188.

  46. Maria, M., Cai, R., Ye, W., Powers, T. O., & Zheng, J. (2018a). Description of Gracilacus paralatescens n. sp. (Nematoda: Paratylenchinae) found from the rhizosphere of bamboo in Zhejiang, China. Journal of Nematology, 50(4), 611–622.

  47. Maria, M., Cai, R., Castillo, P., & Zheng, J. (2018b). Morphological and molecular characterization of Hemicriconemoides paracamelliae sp. n. (Nematoda: Criconematidae) and two known species of Hemicriconemoides from China. Nematology, 20(5), 403–422.

  48. Micoletzky, H. (1922). Die Freilebenden Erd-Nematoden. Archiv für Naturgeschichte, Berlin A, 87, 1–650.

  49. Misra, S. L., & Edward, J. C. (1971). Two new species of the genus Paratylenchus with description of their larval stages and a note on P. nawadus a synonym of P. nainianus. The Allahabad Farmer, 45(4), 345–350.

  50. Nguyen, C. N., Baldwin, J. G., & Choi, Y. E. (2004). New records of Paratylenchus Micoletzky, 1922 (Nematoda: Paratylenchinae) from Viet Nam with description of Paratylenchus laocaiensis sp. n. Journal of Nematode Morphology and Systematics, 7(1), 51–76.

  51. Olson, M., Harris, T., Higgins, R., Mullin, P., Powers, K., Olson, S., & Powers, T. O. (2017). Species delimitation and description of Mesocriconema nebraskense n. sp. (Nematoda: Criconematidae), a morphologically cryptic, parthenogenetic species from north American grasslands. Journal of Nematology, 49(1), 42–66.

  52. Oostenbrink, I. M. (1953). A note on Paratylenchus in the Netherlands with the description of P. goodeyi n. sp. (Nematoda, Criconematidae). Tijdschrift Over Pantenziekten, 59(5), 207–216.

  53. Phukan, P. N., & Sanwal, K. C. (1979). Taxonomic studies on nematodes from Assam, India, (Paratylenchidae: Tylenchida). Indian Journal of Nematology, 9(1), 20–26.

  54. Powers, T. O., Harris, T., Higgins, R., Sutton, L., & Powers, K. S. (2010). Morphological and molecular characterization of Discocriconemella inarata, an endemic nematode from north American native tallgrass prairies. Journal of Nematology, 42(1), 35–45.

  55. Qin, J., He, N. J., Huang, X. Z., & Xiang, Z. H. (2010). Development of mulberry ecological industry and sericulture. Science Sericulture, 36(6), 984–989 (in Chinese).

  56. Raski, D.J. (1962). Paratylenchidae n. fam. with descriptions of five new species of Gracilacus n. g. and an emendation of Cacopaurus Thorne, 1943, Paratylenchus Micoletzky, 1922 and Criconematidae Thorne, 1943. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 29(2), 189–207.

  57. Raski, D. J. (1976). Revision of the genus Paratylenchus Micoletzky, 1922 and descriptions of new species. Part III of three parts. Journal of Nematology, 8(2), 97–115.

  58. Raski, D. J. (1991). Tylenchulidae in agricultural soils. In W. R. Nickle (Ed.), Manual of agricultural nematology (pp. 761–794). New York: Marcel Dekker Inc..

  59. Raski, D. J., & Luc, M. (1987). A reappraisal of Tylenchina (Nemata). 10. The superfamily Criconematoidea Taylor, 1936. Revue de Nématologie, 10(4), 409–444.

  60. Seinhorst, J. W. (1959). A rapid method for the transfer of nematodes from fixative to anhydrous glycerin. Nematologica, 4, 67–69.

  61. Siddiqi, M. R., & Goodey, J. B. (1964). The status of the genera and subfamilies of the Criconematidae (Nematoda); with a comment on the position of Fergusobia. Nematologica, 9(3), 363–377.

  62. Siddiqi, M. R. (2000). Tylenchida: Parasites of plants and insects (2nd ed.833 pp). Wallingford: CABI Publishing.

  63. Toida, Y., Ohshima, Y., & Hirata, A. (1983). Description of Gracilacus yokooi n. sp. (Tylenchida: Paratylenchidae) from mulberry roots in Japan with some observation on its ecology. Japanese Journal of Nematology, 12(1), 15–20.

  64. van den Berg, E., Tiedt, L. R., & Subbotin, S. A. (2014). Morphological and molecular characterisation of several Paratylenchus Micoletzky, 1922 (Tylenchida: Paratylenchidae) species from South Africa and USA, together with some taxonomic notes. Nematology, 1(3), 323–358.

  65. Wang, K., Li, Y., Xie, H., Wu, W. J., & Xu, C. L. (2013). Pin nematode slow decline of Anthurium andraeanum, a new disease caused by the pin nematode Paratylenchus shenzhenensis. Zootaxa, 3750(2), 167–175.

  66. Wang, K., Xie, H., Li, Y., Wu, W. J., & Xu, C. L. (2014). Morphology and molecular analysis of Paratylenchus nanjingensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Paratylenchinae) from the rhizosphere soil of Pinus massoniana in China. Journal of Helminthology, 90(2), 166–173.

  67. Wang, K., Li, Y., Xie, H., Xu, C. L., & Wu, W. J. (2016). Morphology and molecular analysis of Paratylenchus guangzhouensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Paratylenchinae) from the soil associated with Bambusa multiplex in China. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 145, 255–264.

  68. Webster, G. R., Khan, S. F., & Moore, A. W. (1967). Poor growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) on some Alberta soils. Agronomy Journal, 59(1), 37–41.

  69. Wu, Y. L. (1974). Paratylenchus robustus n. sp. (Paratylenchinae: Nematoda) from forest soil in Ontario. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 52(11), 1423–1425.

  70. Ye, W., Giblin-Davis, R. M., Braasch, H., Morris, K., & Thomas, W. K. (2007). Phylogenetic relationships among Bursaphelenchus species (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae) inferred from nuclear ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 43, 1185–1197.

  71. Yu, Q., Ye, W., & Powers, T. O. (2016). Morphological and molecular characterization of Gracilacus wuae n. sp. (Nematoda: Criconematoidea) associated with cow parsnip (Heracleum maximum) in Ontario, Canada. Journal of Nematology, 48(3), 203–213.

  72. Zheng, J., Subbotin, S. A., He, S., Gu, J., & Moens, M. (2003). Molecular characterisation of some Asian isolates of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and B. mucronatus using PCR-RFLPs and sequences of ribosomal DNA. Russian Journal of Nematology, 11(1), 17–22.

Download references


This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31772137). The authors thank Teacher Nianhang Rong from the Center of Electron Microscopy, Life Science Division, Zhejiang University, for providing assistance in the preparation of SEM.

Author information

Correspondence to Jingwu Zheng.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

All the authors certify that 1) do not have any actual or potential conflict of interest, 2) the study described is original and has not been published previously, and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, 3) all prevailing local, national and international regulations and conventions, and normal scientific ethical practices, have been respected. We also certify that all authors have reviewed the manuscript and approved the final version of the manuscript before submission.

Human participants and/or animals

No specific permits were required for the described fieldwork studies. The samples from wild plants were obtained in public areas, forests, and other natural areas studied and do not involve any species endangered or protected in China. The sites are not protected in any way.

Informed consent

All the authors certify that the work carried out in this research followed the principles of ethical and professional conduct have been followed. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Maria, M., Miao, W., Castillo, P. et al. A new pin nematode, Paratylenchus sinensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Paratylenchinae) in the rhizosphere of white mulberry from Zhejiang Province, China. Eur J Plant Pathol (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-020-01953-7

Download citation


  • Gracilacus
  • Characterization
  • Identification
  • Morphology
  • SEM
  • Phylogeny
  • Taxonomy