Influence of temperature on pine wilt disease progression in Pinus thunbergii seedlings
- 69 Downloads
Pine wilt disease (PWD) affects forests globally and is caused by the pinewood nematode (PWN) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. It has been proposed that PWD development has a strong association with air temperature. Because symptom development is related to the number of PWNs and they are poikilothermic animals whose development and multiplication are affected by temperature; it appears that temperature conditions affect the PWN multiplication rate, which leads to difference in disease progression. However, limited information is available about the temperatures inside pine trees, and the understanding of how temperature affects PWN multiplication and PWD progression remains incomplete. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the temperature, number of PWNs, and external symptoms of PWD in Pinus thunbergii seedlings infected with PWNs at air temperatures of 20 °C, 25 °C, and 30 °C over time. We found that the seedling temperatures were slightly higher than the air temperature under each temperature condition and that the effective accumulated temperature calculated using a base temperature of 10 °C was related to the number of PWNs and symptom development in all temperature test groups. However, at 20 °C, there were very few PWNs in some seedlings and none of the seedlings showed partial or full wilting. These findings suggest that PWD progression is greatly affected by ambient temperature and facilitated by increase in PWN populations with effective accumulated temperature especially in the range of 25 °C–30 °C.
KeywordsPine wilt disease Bursaphelenchus xylophilus Pinus thunbergii seedling Temperature
This study was part of a commissioned project supported by the Forestry Agency of Japan. It was also supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, KAKENHI Grant Number JP16K07780. The authors would like to thank Enago (www.enago.jp) for the English language review.
This study was funded by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, KAKENHI (grant number JP16K07780).
Compliance with ethical standards
The authors declare that ethical standards have been followed and that no human participants or animals were involved in this research.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Bartoń, K. (2018). MuMIn: Multi-Model Inference. R package version 1.40.4. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=MuMIn.
- Braasch, H. (2000). Influence of temperature and water supply on mortality of 3-year-old pines inoculated with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and B. mucronatus. Nachrichtenblatt des Dtsch. Pflanzenschutzdienstes, 52(10), 244–249.Google Scholar
- Cheng, H. R., Lin, M. S., & Qian, R. J. (1986). A study on morphological diagnosis and pathogenicity of the pine wood nematode. Journal of Nanjing Agriculture University, 2, 55–59.Google Scholar
- Dozono, Y., & Yoshida, N. (1974). Application of the logistic curve for the population growth of pine wood nematode, Busaphelenchus lignicolus, on the cultures of Botrytis cinerea. Journal of the Japanese Forestry Society, 56(4), 146–148 (In Japanese).Google Scholar
- Graf, B., Höpli, H., & Höhn, H. (2001). Improving the prediction of adult codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) emergence in a natural environment. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin, 24(5), 127–132.Google Scholar
- IPCC. (2014). Climate change 2013: The physical science basis. In the Core writing Team, R. K. Pachauri, & L. A. Meyer (Eds.), Contribution of working groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University press.Google Scholar
- Iwasaki, Y., Yoshikawa, K., Sakamoto, K., & Chiba, K. (1999). Changes in water relation parameters and photosynthetic rate of pine-wood nematode-infested Pinus densiflora Sieb. Et Zucc. Seedlings under several soil moisture conditions. Journal of the Japanese Society of Revegetation Technology, 24(3), 186–191 (In Japanese with English abstract).Google Scholar
- Karssen, G., Wesemael, W., & Moens, M. (2013). Root-knot nematodes. In R. N. Perry & M. Moens (Eds.), Plant nematology (2nd ed., pp. 74–108). Wallingford: CABI.Google Scholar
- Kiyohara, T. (1973). Effect of temperature on the disease incidence of pine seedlings inoculated with Bursaphelenchus lignicolus. Transactions of the Annual Meeting of the Japanese Forestry Society, 84, 334–335 (In Japanese).Google Scholar
- Kiyohara, T., & Tokushige, Y. (1971). Inoculation experiments of a nematode, Bursaphelenchus sp., onto pine trees. Journal of the Japanese Forestry Society, 53(7), 210–218.Google Scholar
- Kozawa, T., & Kobayashi, T. (1999). The objective evaluation method of the tree vigor with the stem temperature -the development of a plant vigor measuring instrument. Journal of Environmental Systems and Engineering, 622(VII-11), 81–86 (In Japanese with English abstract).Google Scholar
- R Core Team. (2018). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R foundation for statistical computing, Vienna, Austria. https://www.R-project.org/.
- Thermeau, T. (2015). A package for survival analysis in S. R package version 2.38. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=survival.
- Tzean, S., & Jan, S. (1985). Pine wilt disease caused by pinewood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) and its occurrence in Taiwan. Phytopathologist and Entomologist, NTU, 12, 1–19.Google Scholar
- Yi, C., Byun, B., Park, J., Yang, S., & Chang, K. (1989). First finding of the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) Nickle and its insect vector in Korea. Research Reports of the Forestry Research Institute Seoul, 38, 141–149.Google Scholar