Multiple alphasatellites associated with Papaya leaf curl virus and Croton yellow mosaic betasatellite in Croton bonplandianus: first identification of Ageratum yellow vein Singapore alphasatellite in Pakistan
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Croton bonplandianus is a common weed across Pakistan and the subcontinent. Plants showing symptoms typical of begomovirus infection, including leaf curling, vein yellowing, and vein swelling were collected and analyzed for the presence of begomoviruses and associated satellites. Cloning and sequencing of products produced by rolling circle amplification showed plants to be infected by the monopartite begomovirus Papaya leaf curl virus in association with the betasatellite Croton yellow vein mosaic betasatellite, which have previously been shown to infect C. bonplandianus. Significantly two species of alphasatellite were shown to be associated with infection of C. bonplandianus; Ageratum enation alphasatellite (AEA), a common alphasatellite across the subcontinent, and Ageratum yellow vein Singapore alphasatellite (AYVSGA). This is the first identification of AYVSGA in Pakistan, which has previously only been identified in Singapore and Oman. Though each component has been identified previously, this is the first time they have been identified in a single host. The significance of these findings is discussed.
KeywordsCroton bonplandianus Papaya leaf curl virus Ageratum yellow vein Singapore alphasatellite Ageratum enation alphasatellite Croton yellow vein mosaic betasatellite
The study was in part supported by the “Pak-US cotton productivity enhancement program” of the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) funded by United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), under agreement no. 58-6402-0-178F. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the USDA or ICARDA.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and animals rights
The research did not involve any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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