PGPR-induced defense responses in the soybean plant against charcoal rot disease
- 184 Downloads
This study aimed to assess the role of two Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), Pseudomonas stutzeri (KX574858) and Pseudomonas putida (KX574857) against charcoal rot instigated by Macrophomina phaseolina in soybean (Glycine max L.) varieties; Ajmeri and NARC grown in pots under greenhouse condition. Macrophomina inocula were added to the soil at the time of sowing. Disease incidence and severity were recorded on 90th day of sowing. Seeds were inoculated with PGPR prior to sowing. Growth parameters such as germination index, shoot height and shoot fresh weight were measured at flowering stage. P. stutzeri significantly (p < 0.05) increased germination index (147% and 115%), shoot height (117% and 103%) and shoot fresh weight (120% and 100%) in cv. Ajmeri and cv. NARC, respectively, in infected plants. Both P. stutzeri (76% and 60%) and P. putida (23% and 22%) significantly decreased the disease severity index of charcoal rot in cv. Ajmeri and cv. NARC, respectively. P. stutzeri induced polyphenol oxidase (435% and 386%), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (257% and 180%), superoxide dismutase (290% and 240%), peroxidase (733% and 666%) and catalase activities (1867% and 1424%) were linearly increased in cv. Ajmeri and cv. NARC, respectively, after 90 days of infection. Significantly higher accumulation of leaf proline and soluble proteins was recorded in both varieties due to P. stutzeri under infected condition. PGPR enhanced the availability of macronutrients in the rhizosphere of infested soil. The antioxidant and defense enzymes in plant were significantly correlated with disease suppression. The PGPR can be used as a supplement with fungicides to combat adverse effect of disease.
KeywordsAntioxidant enzymes Biocontrol Glycine max Macrophomina phaseolina Pseudomonas putida Pseudomonas stutzeri
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human participants and animal studies
This research did not involve human participants or any animal experimentation.
- Ganeshamoorthi, P., Anand, T., Prakasam, V., Bharani, M., Ragupathi, N., & Samiyappan, R. (2008). Plant growth promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) bioconsortia mediates induction of defense-related proteins against infection of root rot pathogen in mulberry plants. Journal of Plant Interactions, 3(4), 233–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hernandez-Montiel, L. G., Chiquito Contreras, C. J., Murillo Amador, B., Vidal Hernandez, L., Aguilar, Q., Evanjelina, E., & Chiquito Contreras, R. G. (2017). Efficiency of two inoculation methods of Pseudomonas putida on growth and yield of tomato plants. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 17(4), 1003–1012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hershman, D. E. (2011). Charcoal Rot of Soybean. http://plantpathology.ca.uky.edu/files/ppfs-ag-s-02.pdf.
- Khan, S. N. (2007). Macrophomina phaseolina as causal agent for charcoal rot of sunflower. Myco-Phytopathological, 5(2), 111–118. http://pu.edu.pk/images/journal/impp/previousissue/Mycopath-9.pdf.
- Kishor, P. K., Sangam, S., Amrutha, R. N., Sri Laxmi, P., Naidu, K. R., Rao Sreenath Rao, K. R. S. S., Reddy, K. J., Theriappan, P., & Sreenivasulu, N. (2005). Regulation of proline biosynthesis, degradation, uptake and transport in higher plants: its implications in plant growth and abiotic stress tolerance. Current Science, 88(3), 424–438.Google Scholar
- Kunwar, I. K., Singh, T., Machado, C. C., & Sinclair, J. B. (1986). Histopathology of soybean seed and seedling infection by Macrophomina phaseolina. Phytopathology, 76(5), 532–535. https://www.apsnet.org/publications/phytopathology/backissues/Documents/1986Articles/Phyto76n05_532.pdf.
- Orhan, E., Esitken, A., Ercisli, S., Turan, M. & Sahin, F. (2006). Effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on yield, growth and nutrient contents in organically growing raspberry. Scientia Horticulturae, 111(1), 38–43.Google Scholar
- Rais, A., Jabeen, Z., Shair, F., Hafeez, F. Y. & Hassan, M. N. (2017). Bacillus spp., a bio-control agent enhances the activity of antioxidant defense enzymes in rice against Pyricularia oryzae. PloS one, 12(11).Google Scholar
- Rojas-Solís, D., Zetter-Salmón, E., Contreras-Perez, M., Del Carmen Rocha-Granados, M., Macías-Rodríguez, L., & Santoyo, G. (2018). Pseudomonas stutzeri E25 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia CR71 endophytes produce antifungal volatile organic compounds and exhibit additive plant growth-promoting effects. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, 13, 46–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Romeiro, R. S., Lanna Filho, R., Macagnan, D., Garcia, F. A., & Silva, H. S. (2010). Evidence that the biocontrol agent Bacillus cereus synthesizes protein that can elicit increased resistance of tomato leaves to Corynespora cassiicola. Tropical Plant Pathology, 35(1), 011–015.Google Scholar
- Sadasivam, S. & Manickam, A. (1992). Biochemical methods for agricultural sciences. Wiley Eastern Ltd, New Delhi, p 246. http://iari.bestbookbuddies.com/cgi-bin/koha/opac-detail.pl?biblionumber=70247.
- Scandiani, M. M., Luque, A. G., Razori, M. V., Ciancio Casalini, L., Aoki, T., O donnell, K., Cervigni, G. D., & Spampinato, C. P. (2014). Metabolic profiles of soybean roots during early stages of Fusarium tucumaniae infection. Journal of Experimental Botany, 66(1), 391–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Singh, R. J., Nelson, R. L., & Chung, G. H. (2007). Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Genetic resources, chromosome engineering, and crop improvement. Oilseed Crops, 4, 13–50.Google Scholar