Advertisement

Effects of isolates of Clarireedia jacksonii and Clarireedia monteithiana on severity of dollar spot in turfgrasses by host type

  • B. A. Aynardi
  • M. M. Jiménez-Gasco
  • W. UddinEmail author
Original Article
  • 15 Downloads

Abstract

Dollar spot, caused by four Clarireedia species (formerly Sclerotinia homoeocarpa), is a devastating disease that affects many turfgrass species throughout North America. Proper classification and genetic diversity of Clarireedia spp. was debated for the past several decades until recently when the organism was reclassified in 2018. Previous studies have shown that there is little genetic diversity except for isolates obtained from warm season hosts in Florida and the southern United States. Our research confirms the presence of isolates obtained from cool-season (C3) turfgrass species which are consistent with the recently classified species Clarireedia jacksonii; and a second, distinct sub-group of isolates obtained solely from warm-season (C4) turfgrass species, which are consistent with the recently classified species Clarireedia monteithiana. Additionally, we have documented the coexistence of these two species throughout the transition zone of the United States, extending as far north as Virginia, with both species present among adjacent stands of C3 and C4 turfgrass species in the same locale. Despite previous documentation of genetically distinct isolates occurring in the United States, there have been no reports on the variability in growth of the two named species over a range of temperatures, nor have these species been evaluated for their ability to infect both C3 and C4 turfgrass species. The effects of temperature on the lack of in vitro isolate growth for both C. jacksonii and C. monteithiana isolates were most noticeable at 10 and 35 °C, where all isolates exhibited little to no growth after 60 h. Cross inoculation experiments showed that both species are capable of infecting and inciting disease on both the preferred and alternative host, and that C. jacksonii isolates are more virulent on both C3 and C4 host grasses than C. monteithiana isolates. The results of this study will have implications for dollar spot management strategies on bermudagrass as well as an increased need for turfgrass breeders to develop dollar spot resistance cultivars of bermudagrass, particularly for those used in climates extending north of the transition zone.

Keywords

Turfgrass Population biology Dollar spot Disease management Clarireedia spp. 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

No conflict of interest exists. The authors, B. A. Aynardi, M. M. Jiménez-Gasco, and W. Uddin declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and animal studies

No animals/animal objects. This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.

References

  1. Aynardi, Brian A. (2016). Sclerotinia homoeocarpa: Pathogen biology and molecular detection methods. Diss. The Pennsylvania State University, 2016. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University. Print.Google Scholar
  2. Bennett, F. T. (1937). Dollarspot disease of turf and its causal organism, Sclerotinia homoeocarpa N. SP. Annals of Applied Biology, 24, 236–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cenis, J. L. (1992). Rapid extraction of fungal DNA for PCR amplification. Nucleic Acids Research, 20, 2380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Deng, F., Melzer, M. S., & Boland, G. J. (2002). Vegetative compatibility and transmission of hypovirulence-associated dsRNA in Sclerotinia homoeocarpa. Can. Journal of Plant Pathology, 24, 481–488.Google Scholar
  5. Endo, R. M. (1963). Influence of temperature on rate of growth of five fungal pathogens of turfgrass and on rate of disease spread. Phytopathology, 53, 857–861.Google Scholar
  6. Engqvist, L. (2005). The mistreatment of covariate interaction termins in linear model analyses of behavioural and evolutionary ecology studies. Animal Behavior, 70, 967–971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Haydu, J. J., Hodges, A. W., & Hall, C. R. (2008). Estimating the economic impact of the U.S. golf course industry: Challenges and solutions. HortScience, 43, 759–763.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Liberti, D., Rollins, J. A., & Harmon, P. F. (2012). Evidence for morphological, vegetative, genetic, and mating-type diversity in Sclerotinia homoeocarpa. Phytopathology, 102, 506–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. National Turfgrass Evaluation Program (NTEP). (1997). National Bentgrass (Putting green) Test – 1993. Dollar spot ratings of bentgrass cultivars, 1993–1997 data – Table 24. Final Report NTEP No. 98–12.Google Scholar
  10. National Turfgrass Evaluation Program (NTEP). (2012). National Bermudagrass Test – 2007. Dollar spot ratings of bermudagrass cultivars, 2012 data – Table 38-A. Progress report NTEP no. 13–6.Google Scholar
  11. Powell, J. F., & Vargas, J. M., Jr. (2001). Vegetative compatibility and seasonal variation among isolates of Sclerotinia homoeocarpa. Plant Disease, 85, 377–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Putman, A. I., Tredway, L., & Carbone, I. (2015). Characterization and distribution of mating- type genes of the turfgrass pathogen Sclerotinia homoeocarpa on a global scale. Fungal Genetics and Biol., 81, 25–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Salgado-Salazar, C., Beirn, L. A., Ismaiel, A., Boehm, M. J., Carbone, I., Putman, A. I., Tredway, L. P., Clarke, B. B., & Crouch, J. A. (2018). Clarireedia: A new fungal genus comprising four pathogenic species responsible for dollar spot disease of turfgrass. Fungal Biology., 122, 761–773.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Smiley, R. W., Dernoeden, P. H., & Clarke, B. B. (2005). Compendium of turfgrass diseases (3rd ed.). St. Paul: APS Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Sonoda, R. M. (1989). Vegetative compatibility groups among Sclerotinia homoeocarpa from leaves of Paspalum notatum. Proceedings Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida, 48, 35–36.Google Scholar
  16. Tamura, K., Stecher, G., and Kumar, S. (2015). MEGA7: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 7.0 for bigger data sets (submitted).Google Scholar
  17. Vargas, J. M., Jr. (1994). Fungal diseases of turfgrass I: Diseases primarily occurring on golf course turfs. Pages 15–33 in: Management of Turfgrass Diseases (2nd ed.). Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  18. Viji, G., Uddin, W., O’Neill, N. R., Mischke, S., & Sauder, J. A. (2004). Genetic diversity of Sclerotinia homoeocarpa isolates from turfgrasses from various regions in North America. Plant Disease, 88, 1269–1276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Walsh, B., Ikeda, S. S., & Boland, G. J. (1999). Biology and management of dollar spot (Sclerotinia homoeocarpa); an important disease of turfgrass. HortScience, 34, 13–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Warren, C. G., Sanders, P., & Cole, H. (1974). Sclerotinia homoeocarpa tolerance to benzimidazole configuration fungicides. Phytopathology, 64, 1139–1114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. White, T. M., Bruns, T., Lee, S., & Taylor, J. (1990). Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA for phylogenetics. Pages 315-322 in: PCR Protocols: A Guide to Methods and Applications. Eds., M. A. Innis, D. H. Gelfand, J. J. Sninsky, T. J. White. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.Google Scholar
  22. Wu, D. Y., Ugozzoli, L., Pal, B. K., Qian, J. & Wallace, R. B. 1991. The Effect of Temperature and Oligonucleotide Primer Length on the Specificity and Efficiency of Amplification by the Polymerase Chain Reaction. DNA and Cell Biology 10 (3):233–238Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. A. Aynardi
    • 1
  • M. M. Jiménez-Gasco
    • 1
  • W. Uddin
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Plant Pathology and Environmental MicrobiologyThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations