Advertisement

European Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 153, Issue 2, pp 557–570 | Cite as

Effects of temperature, moisture and nutrition on conidial germination, survival, colonization and sporulation of Trichothecium roseum

  • Xue Li
  • Bao-hua LiEmail author
  • Sen Lian
  • Xiang-li Dong
  • Cai-xia Wang
  • Wen-xing Liang
Article
  • 71 Downloads

Abstract

Trichothecium roseum is an important pathogen and causes moldy core and black spots on apple fruit. The effects of temperature, moisture and nutrition on conidial germination, survival, colonization and sporulation of T. roseum were examined in controlled environments. The results revealed that external nutriments, such as extracts from apple fruit and flower promoted the conidial germination. The temperature required for conidial germination and sporulation of T. roseum ranged from 10 °C to 35 °C, with an optimum at approximately 28 °C. No conidia were produced at 35 °C, although conidia germinated at this temperature. The lethal temperature for the conidia was 46 °C and the conidia survived for 6.8 days at 40 °C. The most favorable moisture for conidial germination and sporulation of the pathogen was 95% relative humidity (RH). The humidity limit was RH = 90% for the conidial germination and RH = 70% for the fungal sporulation. At the optimum temperature, the fungi finished one generation (i.e., from conidial germination to sporulation) was no more than two days in Malus micromalus flowers, although the conidia germinated more slowly in vitro. Conidial germination and sporulation dynamics of T. roseum were well described by modified logistic models. The results can be used to develop disease forecasting model and help improving fungicide control of the disease.

Keywords

Moldy core Black spots Bagged apple fruits 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was funded by National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFD0201122), Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation Project of Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences (2017CXGC0214), China Agriculture Research System (CARS-27), and Taishan Scholar Construction Project of Shandong Province.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Human and animal rights

This research does not include any animal and/or human trials.

References

  1. Arauz, L. F., Neufeld, K. N., Lloyd, A. L., & Ojiambo, P. S. (2010). Quantitative models for germination and infection of Pseudoperonospora cubensis in response to temperature and duration of leaf wetness. Phytopathology, 100(9), 959–967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bello, D. (2008). First report of Trichothecium roseum causing postharvest fruit rot of tomato in Argentina. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 3(1), 103–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chen, Y., Wen, J., & Lijun, L. I. (2006). Research advance of grape grey mould. Journal of Northeast Agricultural University, 37(5), 693–699.Google Scholar
  4. Duthie, J. (1997). Models of the response of foliar parasites to the combined effects of temperature and duration of wetness. Phytopathology, 87(11), 1088–1095.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Elad, Y., Yunis, H., & Volpin, H. (1993). Effect of nutrition on susceptibility of cucumber, eggplant, and pepper crops to Botrytis cinerea. Botany, 71(4), 602–608.Google Scholar
  6. Ellis, M. A. (1980). Fungi associated with moldy-core of apple and their location within fruit. Research circular. Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 259, 36–38.Google Scholar
  7. Gao, L. L., Zhang, Q., Sun, X. Y., Jiang, L., Zhang, R., Sun, G. Y., Zha, Y. L., & Biggs, A. R. (2013). Etiology of moldy Core, Core Browning, and Core rot of Fuji apple in China. Plant Disease, 97(4), 510–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Guo, Y. Z., Sun, G. Y., Gao, B. W., Chun-You, L. I., Zhang, P. L., & Lei, X. L. (2005). Studies on the identification of pathogen and the biological characteristics of black-dot disease of bagged apple. Acta Agriculturae Boreali-occidentalis Sinica, 14(3), 18–21.Google Scholar
  9. Hamid, M. I., Hussain, M., Ghazanfar, M. U., Raza, M., & Liu, X. Z. (2014). Trichothecium roseum causes fruit rot of tomato, orange, and apple in Pakistan. Plant Disease, 98(9), 1271–1271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hao, X. A., Yun feng, W. U., Zhou, X. M., & Yang, Y. (2004). Preliminary studies on the identification and occurrence of black-dot disease on bagged apple fruit in Shaanxi. Acta Agriculturae Boreali-Occidentalis Sinica, 13(4), 54–57.Google Scholar
  11. Hao, B. F., Yu, L. C., Xu, C. X., He, L. M., & Jiao, R. (2010). Tarsonemus confusus causes black-dot disease of bagged fruits on apple trees and its control. Journal of Fruit Science, 27(6), 956–960.Google Scholar
  12. Harris, R. F., Gardner, W. R., Adebayo, A. A., & Sommers, L. E. (1970). Agar dish isopiestic equilibration method for controlling the water potential of solid substrates. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 19(3), 536–537.Google Scholar
  13. Hasija, S. K., & Agarwal, H. C. (1978). Nutritional physiology of Trichothecium roseum. Mycologia, 70(1), 47–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hu, L., Ma, C., Zhang, J., Tan, W., Yang, G., & Zhang, L. (1995). Infection process of pathogenic fungi contributing to mouldy core and core rot of starking apples fruits. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica, 25(04), 351–356.Google Scholar
  15. Hu, L., Ma, C., Yang, G., & Tang, W. (1996). Study on causal agent of apple mouldy core and core rot (in Chinese). Journal of Fruit Science, 1996(03), 157–161.Google Scholar
  16. Karabulut, O. A., Romanazzi, G., Smilanick, J. L., & Lichter, A. (2005). Postharvest ethanol and potassium sorbate treatments of table grapes to control gray mold. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 37(2), 129–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lang, A. (1967). Osmotic coefficients and water potentials of sodium chloride solutions from 0 to 40°C. Australian Journal of Chemistry, 20(9), 2017–2023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Li, B., Zhao, H., Li, B., & Xu, X. M. (2003). Effects of temperature, relative humidity and duration of wetness period on germination and infection by conidia of the pear scab pathogen (Venturia nashicola). Plant Pathology, 52(5), 546–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Li, E. M., Shi, D. C., Xu, Y. H., Chen, F., & Zhai, H. (2008). Changing characteristics of temperature and humidity in different type bags for bagging apple and their effects on fruit appearance quality. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 19(1), 208–212.Google Scholar
  20. Li, X., JIn, J., Li, B., Wang, C., Dong, X., & Wang, C. (2016). Community structure and temporal dynamics of fungi in cuticle and core of bagging and un-bagging apple fruit. Mycosystema, 35(8), 927–938.Google Scholar
  21. Lin, S. H., Wang, J., & Wu, A. B. (2016). A post-harvest pink rot of pepper caused by Trichothecium roseum in China. Plant Disease, 100(10), 2164–2164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Liu, Y. L., Fan, C. H., Che, F., Hui, M. A., Zhao, Z. Y., & Jiang, H. X. (2007). Occurrencs of black-dot disease on bagged apple in Shaanxi Province. Journal of Northwest Forestry University, 2007(03), 116–119.Google Scholar
  23. May-De-Mio, L. L., Negri, G., & Michailides, T. J. (2014). Effect of Trichothecium roseum, lime Sulphur and phosphites to control blossom blight and brown rot on peach. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology-Revue Canadienne De Phytopathologie, 36(4), 428–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Moreira, L. M., & May-De-Mio, L. L. (2007). Mycelial growth of monilinia fructicola and trichothecium roseum in several temperatures and sensitivity of antagonist to fungicides and phosphites. Scientia Agraria Curitiba, 2007(3), 337–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ntasiou, P., Myresiotis, C., Konstantinou, S., Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, E., & Karaoglanidis G. S. (2015). Identification, characterization and mycotoxigenic ability of Alternaria spp. causing core rot of apple fruit in Greece. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 197:22–9.Google Scholar
  26. Oh, S., Nam, K., & Yoon, D. (2014). Identification of Acremonium acutatum and Trichothecium roseum isolated from grape with white stain symptom in Korea. Mycobiology, 42(3), 269–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Shtienberg, D. (2012). Effects of host physiology on the development of core rot, caused by alternaria alternata, in red delicious apples. Phytopathology, 102(8), 769–778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Silveira, F. N., Kretzschmar, A. A., Rufato, L., Bogo, A., & Fioravanço, J. C. (2013). Relationship between fruit morphological characteristics and incidence of moldy core in 'Gala' and 'Fuji' apple clones on different rootstocks. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura 35(1), 75–85.Google Scholar
  29. Sun, S., Lian, S., Feng, S., et al. (2016). Effects of temperature and moisture on sporulation and infection by Pseudoperonospora cubensis. Plant Disease, 101(4), 562–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Tang, Z., Chen, C., Hui, W., Shi, X., & Chen, Y. (2003). Studies on the occurrence of black-dot disease of bagged apple. Journal of Northwest Sci-Tech University of Agriculture and Forestry, 2003(02), 59–61.Google Scholar
  31. Vercesi, A., Locci, R., & Prosser, J. I. (1997). Growth kinetics of Botrytis cinerea on organic acids and sugars in relation to colonization of grape berries. Fungal Biology, 101(2), 139–142.Google Scholar
  32. Wang, C., Jin, J., Li, B., Wang, C., Dong, X., & Zhang, Z. (2014). Pathogens isolated from different symptoms of black spot disease and infection conditions. Acta Agriculturae Boreali-Occidentalis Sinica, 29(6), 136–144.Google Scholar
  33. Wang, B., Li, B., Dong, X., Wang, C., & Zhang, Z. (2015). Effects of temperature, wetness euration, and moisture on the conidial germination, infection, and disease incubation period of Glomerella cingulata. Plant Disease, 99(2), 249–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Xin, Y., Qin, S., Li, B., Yin, S., Ding, X., & Lei, C. (2000). Control efficacy and inhibitory action of Bacillus subtilis XM16 strain on disease and pathogens of apple mould core. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica, 30(01), 66–70.Google Scholar
  35. Zeng, M., Wang, H., & Wang j, H. L. (2014). Influence of bagging Fuji fruit on the rate the of calyx tube opened and moldy core disease. Northern Horticulture, 2014(15), 122–124.Google Scholar
  36. Zhang, Z. M., & Yang, B. I. (2006). Research on biological characteristics of Trichothecium roseum. Journal of Gansu Agricultural University, 41(4), 86–90.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xue Li
    • 1
  • Bao-hua Li
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sen Lian
    • 1
  • Xiang-li Dong
    • 1
  • Cai-xia Wang
    • 1
  • Wen-xing Liang
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Lab of Integrated Crop Pest Management of Shandong ProvinceCollege of Plant Health and Medicine, Qingdao Agricultural UniversityQingdaoPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations