Effects of temperature, moisture and nutrition on conidial germination, survival, colonization and sporulation of Trichothecium roseum
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Trichothecium roseum is an important pathogen and causes moldy core and black spots on apple fruit. The effects of temperature, moisture and nutrition on conidial germination, survival, colonization and sporulation of T. roseum were examined in controlled environments. The results revealed that external nutriments, such as extracts from apple fruit and flower promoted the conidial germination. The temperature required for conidial germination and sporulation of T. roseum ranged from 10 °C to 35 °C, with an optimum at approximately 28 °C. No conidia were produced at 35 °C, although conidia germinated at this temperature. The lethal temperature for the conidia was 46 °C and the conidia survived for 6.8 days at 40 °C. The most favorable moisture for conidial germination and sporulation of the pathogen was 95% relative humidity (RH). The humidity limit was RH = 90% for the conidial germination and RH = 70% for the fungal sporulation. At the optimum temperature, the fungi finished one generation (i.e., from conidial germination to sporulation) was no more than two days in Malus micromalus flowers, although the conidia germinated more slowly in vitro. Conidial germination and sporulation dynamics of T. roseum were well described by modified logistic models. The results can be used to develop disease forecasting model and help improving fungicide control of the disease.
KeywordsMoldy core Black spots Bagged apple fruits
This research was funded by National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFD0201122), Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation Project of Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences (2017CXGC0214), China Agriculture Research System (CARS-27), and Taishan Scholar Construction Project of Shandong Province.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
Human and animal rights
This research does not include any animal and/or human trials.
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