Pathogenicity of Ilyonectria liriodendri and Dactylonectria macrodidyma propagules in grapevines
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Black foot disease, caused by Ilyonectria liriodendri and Dactylonectria macrodidyma, is a significant disease of grapevines both in New Zealand and worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the pathogenicity of New Zealand I. liriodendri and D. macrodidyma isolates in two grapevine rootstocks as callused and rooted propagation material. Three isolates each of I. liriodendri and D. macrodidyma, all infected callused and root-wounded grapevine rootstock plants (varieties ‘101–14’ and ‘5C’). Isolates from each species caused high disease incidences and severities at both 1 and 5 cm above the stem base. There were no significant differences in disease incidence or severity between rootstocks ‘101–14’ and ‘5C’. However, vines arising from callused rootstock had significantly higher disease incidence and severity compared with rooted vines. Conidia caused greater disease incidence and severity compared with chlamydospores and mycelium. A novel threshold propagule experiment with I. liriodendri propagules determined that disease incidence and severity at the stem base were significantly affected by the concentration of the propagules rather than the propagule type. Root dry weights significantly differed between I. liriodendri and D. macrodidyma isolates but not between species. Root dry weights were higher with callused versus rooted vines, with mycelium versus chlamydospores or conidia, and with propagule concentration rather than propagule type. Shoot dry weights were significantly higher for I. liriodendri compared with D. macrodidyma species, rooted versus callused vines and ‘101–14’ compared with ‘5C’ rootstocks. The results of the study has confirmed that both I. liriodendri and D. macrodidyma were capable of infecting grapevines through wounded roots or callused basal ends, indicating that these pathogens are capable of invading grapevines either in nurseries or in vineyards.
KeywordsCylindrocarpon spp. Ilyonectria Dactylonectria Disease incidence Disease severity Propagules Inoculum level Rootstocks Vitis spp.
The authors acknowledge New Zealand Winegrowers and Lincoln University for funding and Technology for Industry Funding (Callaghan Innovation), New Zealand Ministry of Science and Innovation for providing a scholarship to the first author. The authors are also grateful to Cloudy Bay Vineyard, Marlborough for providing space for a pot experiment and technical advice, and the Lincoln University nursery staff for assistance with setting up and maintenance of the experiments.
Funding was provided by New Zealand Winegrowers, Technology for Industry Funding (Callaghan Innovation) New Zealand Ministry of Science and Innovation (Postgraduate research scholarship awarded to the first author) and Lincoln University.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
None of the authors declare a conflict of interest, with all authors consenting to publication.
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