European Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 153, Issue 4, pp 1299–1315 | Cite as

Symptomology and yield impact of pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus (PNYDV) in faba bean (Vicia faba L. minor)

  • Helmut SauckeEmail author
  • D. Uteau
  • K. Brinkmann
  • H. Ziebell


We surveyed 33 symptomatic faba bean sites in central Germany towards the end of the growing season 2016 to analyse the suspected virus spectrum. All sites displayed plants with characteristic symptoms and had distinct funnel-shaped patches with a severely affected centre. The central core consisted of stunted, prematurely senescent plants. Symptomatic foci were scattered at random over a largely symptomless field. At two exemplary investigation sites we combined ground based yield assessments with remote sensing techniques to describe disease-loss relationships. Based on low altitude true-colour aerial imaging data, symptomatic patches were categorised into: (i) severely affected blackish core region, (ii) yellowish symptomatic periphery, and (iii) a corresponding non-symptomatic reference patch. Serological tests revealed PNYDV (Pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus) together with PEMV (Pea enation mosaic virus) as dominant and equally abundant viruses. However, because PNYDV was significantly more restricted to the focal core than PEMV, we perceived PNYDV to be the causal agent for this apparently new symptom pattern in faba bean. As both viruses are vectored persistently by leguminous aphids, the observed symptom gradient within individual foci mirrored the epidemiological development over time, starting from an initial infection point and expanding towards the periphery via secondary virus spread to successively maturing and less susceptible plants. For each investigation site the segmented symptomatic surface of category (i) was 0.8 and 0.4%, for (ii) 20.5 and 6.4%, respectively. Combining the relative yield level for each symptom category with its respective surface, the overall yield gap at the field scale was extrapolated to 4.1 and 9.2% for grain yield and for 3.9 and 1.2% for crude protein. In the symptomatic core category, TKWs (thousand kernel weights) were halved due to enhanced proportions of shriveled grain. Because PNYDV-related yield decline was determined by the number, relative surface and disease intensity of individual foci, remote sensing techniques can offer valuable options for monitoring, loss assessment and agricultural decision-making.


Pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus Yield True colour images Remote sensing Grain legumes 



We greatly appreciate the help of Angelika Sieg-Müller, Oriana Köhler and Lisa Husmann for their excellent diagnostic contribution in the JKI lab and we are grateful to Eduard Beck for flying the remote controlled hexacopter in North Hesse. Many thanks for the dedication and friendly support in analysing raw protein content by Christiane Jatsch, Department of Animal Nutrition and Animal Health. Our thanks go also to the numerous students of the University Kassel-Witzenhausen for extensive yield assessments.

Compliance with ethical standards

The authors declare their compliance with Ethical Standards.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Humans and animal studies

This research did not involve experiments requiring a notification and permitting procedure with neither Humans and/or Animals nor genetic engineering research.

Informed consent

Informed consent? yes, the authors agree with the EJPP procedure.


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Copyright information

© Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helmut Saucke
    • 1
    Email author
  • D. Uteau
    • 2
  • K. Brinkmann
    • 3
  • H. Ziebell
    • 4
  1. 1.Faculty of Organic Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecological Crop ProtectionUniversity of KasselWitzenhausenGermany
  2. 2.Faculty of Organic Agricultural Sciences, Department of Soil ScienceUniversity of KasselWitzenhausenGermany
  3. 3.Faculty of Organic Agricultural Sciences, Organic Plant Production and Agroecosystems Research in the Tropics and SubtropicsUniversity of KasselWitzenhausenGermany
  4. 4.Julius Kuehn Institute, Institute for Epidemiology and Pathogen DiagnosticsBraunschweigGermany

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