Reversible activation of XA21-mediated resistance by temperature
The pattern recognition receptor XA21 confers developmentally-regulated resistance to bacterial blight disease of rice caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Under normal conditions, XA21 plants are susceptible when inoculated 2 weeks after germination and become fully resistant as they mature (after six-week-old). We report here that XA21-mediated resistance can be fully activated when the juvenile plants are grown at 27 °C under fluorescent light. Once transferred back to 31 °C under the same light intensity, XA21 seedlings lose the gained resistance. Temperature shift experiments indicate that high temperature treatment can suppress activated XA21 resistance. We also show that abundance of the XA21 protein is not significantly influenced by the temperature changes. These results highlight an interplay between development and temperature in this immune system. Full activation of resistance at juvenile stage will greatly facilitate the studies of XA21 immunity.
KeywordsReceptor kinase Disease resistance Development Temperature Rice
We thank Drs. J.B. Jones, Z. Mou and T.A. Davoli for critical reading of the manuscript. We specially thank Dr. Lawrence E. Datnoff for his support to Q.C.
This research was supported by the Alumni Fellowship at University of Florida and by the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative Competitive Grant no.11632532 from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and by supported by the USAID, as part of the Feed the Future initiative, under the CGIAR Fund, award number BFS-G-11-00002, the predecessor fund for the Food Security and Crisis Mitigation II grant.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and animal rights
This research does not include any animal and/or human trials.
The authors bear all the ethical responsibilities of this manuscript.
- Cao, Y., Ding, X., Cai, M., Zhao, J., Lin, Y., Li, X., Xu, C., & Wang, S. (2007). Expression pattern of a rice disease resistance gene Xa3/Xa26 is differentially regulated by the genetic backgrounds and developmental stages that in influence its function. Genetics, 177(1), 523–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Chen, X., Chern, M., Canlas, P. E., Ruan, D., Jiang, C., & Ronald, P. C. (2010). An ATPase promotes autophosphorylation of the pattern recognition receptor XA21 and inhibits XA21-mediated immunity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107(17), 8029–8034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Huot, B., Castroverde, C. D. M., Velásquez, A. C., Hubbard, E., Pulman, J. A., Yao, J., Childs, K. L., Tsuda, K., Montgomery, B. L., & He, S. Y. (2017). Dual impact of elevated temperature on plant defense and bacterial virulence in Arabidopsis. Nature Communications, 8(1), 1808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kauffman, H. E., Reddy, A. P. K., Hsieh, S. P. Y., & Merca, S. D. (1973). An improved technique for evaluating resistance to rice varieties of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Plant Disease Report, 57(6), 537–541.Google Scholar
- Khush, G. S., Bacalangco, E., & Ogawa, T. (1990). A new gene for resistance to bacterial blight from O. longistaminata. Rice Genetics Newsletter, 67, 121–122.Google Scholar
- Mazzola, M., Leach, J. E., Nelson, R., & White, F. F. (1994). Analysis of the interaction between Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and rice cultivars IR24 and IRBB21. Molecular Plant Pathology, 84(4), 392–339.Google Scholar
- Qi, Z., & Mew, T. (1985). Adult-plant resistance of rice cultivars to bacterial blight. Plant Disease, 69(10), 896–898.Google Scholar
- Wang, Y. S., Pi, L. Y., Chen, X., Chakrabarty, P. K., Jiang, J., De Leon, A. L., Liu, G. Z., Li, L., Benny, U., Oard, J., Ronald, P. C., & Song, W. Y. (2006). Rice XA21 binding protein 3 is a ubiquitin ligase required for full Xa21-mediated disease resistance. Plant Cell, 18(12), 3635–3646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Xiao, S., Brown, S., Patrick, E., Brearley, C., & Turner, J. G. (2003). Enhanced transcription of the Arabidopsis disease resistance genes RPW8.1 and RPW8.2 via a salicylic acid-dependent amplification circuit is required for hypersensitive cell death. Plant Cell, 15(1), 33–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Xu, W. H., Wang, Y. S., Liu, G. Z., Chen, X., Tinjuangjun, P., Pi, L. Y., & Song, W. Y. (2006). The autophosphorylated Ser686, Thr688, and Ser689 residues in the intracellular juxtamembrane domain of XA21 are implicated in stability control of rice receptor-like kinase. Plant Journal, 45(5), 740–751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar