Reversible activation of XA21-mediated resistance by temperature

  • Qiang Chen
  • Xiaoen Huang
  • Xiuhua Chen
  • Shamsunnaher
  • Wen-Yuan SongEmail author


The pattern recognition receptor XA21 confers developmentally-regulated resistance to bacterial blight disease of rice caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Under normal conditions, XA21 plants are susceptible when inoculated 2 weeks after germination and become fully resistant as they mature (after six-week-old). We report here that XA21-mediated resistance can be fully activated when the juvenile plants are grown at 27 °C under fluorescent light. Once transferred back to 31 °C under the same light intensity, XA21 seedlings lose the gained resistance. Temperature shift experiments indicate that high temperature treatment can suppress activated XA21 resistance. We also show that abundance of the XA21 protein is not significantly influenced by the temperature changes. These results highlight an interplay between development and temperature in this immune system. Full activation of resistance at juvenile stage will greatly facilitate the studies of XA21 immunity.


Receptor kinase Disease resistance Development Temperature Rice 



We thank Drs. J.B. Jones, Z. Mou and T.A. Davoli for critical reading of the manuscript. We specially thank Dr. Lawrence E. Datnoff for his support to Q.C.


This research was supported by the Alumni Fellowship at University of Florida and by the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative Competitive Grant no.11632532 from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and by supported by the USAID, as part of the Feed the Future initiative, under the CGIAR Fund, award number BFS-G-11-00002, the predecessor fund for the Food Security and Crisis Mitigation II grant.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and animal rights

This research does not include any animal and/or human trials.

Ethical approval

The authors bear all the ethical responsibilities of this manuscript.

Supplementary material

10658_2018_1634_Fig5_ESM.png (1 mb)
Fig. S1

Disease lesions on inoculated leaves of the indicated genotypes at 27 °C. Photograph taken at 12 dpi. Typical symptoms of bacterial blight disease of rice include leaf curl and grayish color of leaf lesions. (PNG 1026 kb)

High Resolution Image (TIF 278 kb)
10658_2018_1634_Fig6_ESM.png (98 kb)
Fig. S2

Plant height of 4021–3 plants maintained at 27 °C or 31 °C. Plant height was measured at 12 days after incubated at indicated temperature. Error bars are SD (n > 10). (PNG 97 kb)

High Resolution Images (TIF 43 kb)


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Copyright information

© Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qiang Chen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xiaoen Huang
    • 1
  • Xiuhua Chen
    • 1
    • 3
  • Shamsunnaher
    • 1
  • Wen-Yuan Song
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Plant PathologyUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  2. 2.Monsanto SingaporeSingaporeSingapore
  3. 3.Benson Hill BiosystemsSt. LouisUSA

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