Globally, road dust is a major source of inhalable particulate matter in any urban environment. This research seeks to assess the elemental composition of road dust at Vellore city, India, and to evaluate its health risks. For this, dust samples are collected from 18 locations in the study region. The collected samples are digested and analysed for about 25 elements using inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectroscopy, of which 19 elements have concentration greater than the detection limit of the instrument (Al, Ba, Ca, Mg, Sr, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Zn, In, K, Li, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb and Rb). The highest mean concentration is noted for Fe (22,638.23 mg/kg) followed by Ca (13,439.47 mg/kg), Al (8445.89 mg/kg) and Mg (3381.20 mg/kg). Enrichment factor (EF) and contamination factor (CF) are calculated for 10 trace elements: Cu, Co, Cr, Ga, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr and Zn. Elements Ga and Zn show the highest EF and CF. Source identification recognized that crustal material and traffic as the major sources of potentially toxic elements (PTEs). Further, the health risk assessment is performed for nine PTEs and identifies that Fe, Pb, Cr and Co are elements with the highest health index. Health index of these elements suggests a possible health risk. Ingestion is the major pathway, and children are found to be at a higher risk compared to adults.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Abbasi, S., Keshavarzi, B., Moore, F., & Mahmoudi, M. R. (2018). Fractionation, source identification and risk assessment of potentially toxic elements in street dust of the most important center for petrochemical products, Asaluyeh County, Iran. Environmental Earth Sciences,77(19), 673. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-018-7854-z.
Abu-Allaban, M., Gillies, J. A., Gertler, A. W., Clayton, R., & Proffitt, D. (2003). Tailpipe, resuspended road dust, and brake-wear emission factors from on-road vehicles. Atmospheric Environment,37(37), 5283–5293. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2003.05.005.
Achad, M., Caumo, S., de Castro Vasconcellos, P., Bajano, H., Gómez, D., & Smichowski, P. (2018). Chemical markers of biomass burning: Determination of levoglucosan, and potassium in size-classified atmospheric aerosols collected in Buenos Aires, Argentina by different analytical techniques. Microchemical Journal,139, 181–187. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2018.02.016.
Acosta, J. A., Cano, A. F., Arocena, J. M., Debela, F., & Martínez-Martínez, S. (2009). Distribution of metals in soil particle size fractions and its implication to risk assessment of playgrounds in Murcia City (Spain). Geoderma,149(1), 101–109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2008.11.034.
Acosta, J. A., Faz, Á., Kalbitz, K., Jansen, B., & Martínez-Martínez, S. (2011). Heavy metal concentrations in particle size fractions from street dust of Murcia (Spain) as the basis for risk assessment. Journal of Environmental Monitoring,13(11), 3087–3096. https://doi.org/10.1039/C1EM10364D.
Acosta, J. A., Faz, A., Kalbitz, K., Jansen, B., & Martínez-Martínez, S. (2014). Partitioning of heavy metals over different chemical fraction in street dust of Murcia (Spain) as a basis for risk assessment. Journal of Geochemical Exploration,144, 298–305. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gexplo.2014.02.004.
Almeida, S., Pio, C., Freitas, M., Reis, M., & Trancoso, M. (2005). Source apportionment of fine and coarse particulate matter in a sub-urban area at the Western European Coast. Atmospheric Environment,39(17), 3127–3138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.01.048.
Amato, F., Cassee, F. R., Denier van der Gon, H. A. C., Gehrig, R., Gustafsson, M., Hafner, W., et al. (2014). Urban air quality: The challenge of traffic non-exhaust emissions. Journal of Hazardous Materials,275, 31–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.04.053.
Amjadian, K., Pirouei, M., Rastegari Mehr, M., Shakeri, A., Khurshid Rasool, S., & Ibrahim Haji, D. (2018). Contamination, health risk, mineralogical and morphological status of street dusts- case study: Erbil metropolis, Kurdistan Region-Iraq. Environmental Pollution,243, 1568–1578. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.09.116.
Anupam, K., Srirangam, S. K., Scarpas, A., & Kasbergen, C. (2013). Influence of temperature on tire-pavement friction: Analyses. Transportation Research Record,2369(1), 114–124. https://doi.org/10.3141/2369-13.
Arslan, H. (2001). Heavy metals in street dust in Bursa, Turkey. Journal of Trace and Microprobe Techniques,19(3), 439–445. https://doi.org/10.1081/TMA-100105058.
ASTM. (2001). Standard test method for sieve analysis of fine and coarse aggregates. In Annual Book of ASTM Standards (Vol. 04, pp. 1–5). ASTM.
Atiemo, S., Ofosu, F., Aboh, I., & Yeboah, P. (2010). Determination of heavy metals and human health risk assessment of road dust on the tema motorway and tetteh quarshie interchange in Accra, Ghana. Journal of the Ghana Science Association. https://doi.org/10.4314/jgsa.v12i2.62816.
DoEE, Australia. (2010). Lead in auto paints. Department of the Environment and Energy. http://www.environment.gov.au/. Accessed 4 October 2019.
Barbieri, M. (2016). The importance of enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) to evaluate the soil contamination. Journal of Geology and Geophysics,5(237), 2. https://doi.org/10.4172/2381-8719.1000237.
Bartkowiak, A., Dabkovska-Naskret, H., Lemanowicz, J., & Siwik-Ziomek, A. (2017). Assessment of physiochemical and biological factors of urban street dust. Environment Protection Engineering,43(3), 155–164. https://doi.org/10.5277/epe170310.
Baykov, B. D., Stoyanov, M. P., & Gugova, M. L. (1996). Cadmium and lead bioaccumulation in male chickens for high food concentrations. Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry,54(1–4), 155–159. https://doi.org/10.1080/02772249609358308.
Belis, C. A., Karagulian, F., Larsen, B. R., & Hopke, P. K. (2013). Critical review and meta-analysis of ambient particulate matter source apportionment using receptor models in Europe. Atmospheric Environment,69, 94–108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.11.009.
Benjelloun, M., Tarrass, F., Hachim, K., Medkouri, G., Benghanem, M. G., & Ramdani, B. (2007). Chronic lead poisoning: A “forgotten” cause of renal disease. Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation: An Official Publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia,18(1), 83–86.
Bi, X., Feng, Y., Wu, J., Wang, Y., & Zhu, T. (2007). Source apportionment of PM10 in six cities of northern China. Atmospheric Environment,41(5), 903–912. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.09.033.
Briggs, N. L., & Long, C. M. (2016). Critical review of black carbon and elemental carbon source apportionment in Europe and the United States. Atmospheric Environment,144, 409–427. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.09.002.
Bullard, J., & Baddock, M. (2019). Dust: Sources, entrainment, transport. In Aeolian geomorphology: A new introduction (pp. 81–106).
Cerda, E. V., Reyes, L. H., Barbosa, J. M. A., Elizondo Martinez, P., & Acuña Askar, K. (2011). Contamination and chemical fractionation of heavy metals in street dust from the Metropolitan Area of Monterrey, Mexico. Environmental Technology,32(10), 1163–1172. https://doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2010.529466.
Cheng, Z., Chen, L.-J., Li, H.-H., Lin, J.-Q., Yang, Z.-B., Yang, Y.-X., et al. (2018). Characteristics and health risk assessment of heavy metals exposure via household dust from urban area in Chengdu, China. Science of the Total Environment,619–620, 621–629. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.11.144.
Cheng, Y., Ho, K. F., Lee, S. C., & Law, S. W. (2006). Seasonal and diurnal variations of PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 in the roadside environment of hong kong. China Particuology,4(6), 312–315. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1672-2515(07)60281-4.
Chio, C.-P., Cheng, M.-T., & Wang, C.-F. (2004). Source apportionment to PM10 in different air quality conditions for Taichung urban and coastal areas, Taiwan. Atmospheric Environment,38(39), 6893–6905. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.08.041.
Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Houck, J. E., Pritchett, L. C., Rogers, C. F., Frazier, C. A., et al. (1994). A laboratory resuspension chamber to measure fugitive dust size distributions and chemical compositions. Atmospheric Environment,28(21), 3463–3481. https://doi.org/10.1016/1352-2310(94)90005-1.
Cohen, A. J., Brauer, M., Burnett, R., Anderson, H. R., Frostad, J., Estep, K., et al. (2017). Estimates and 25-year trends of the global burden of disease attributable to ambient air pollution: An analysis of data from the Global Burden of Diseases Study 2015. Lancet (London, England),389(10082), 1907–1918. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30505-6.
Councell, T. B., Duckenfield, K. U., Landa, E. R., & Callender, E. (2004). Tire-wear particles as a source of zinc to the environment. Environmental Science and Technology,38(15), 4206–4214. https://doi.org/10.1021/es034631f.
Das, A., Krishna, K. V. S. S., Kumar, R., Saha, M. C., Sengupta, S., & Ghosh, J. G. (2018). Lead isotopic ratios in source apportionment of heavy metals in the street dust of Kolkata, India. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology,15(1), 159–172. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-017-1377-0.
Davenport, A. (2020). Trace elements in chronic kidney disease. In Chronic renal disease (pp. 703–717). Elsevier.
Davidson, C. I., Phalen, R. F., & Solomon, P. A. (2005). Airborne particulate matter and human health: A review. Aerosol Science and Technology,39(8), 737–749. https://doi.org/10.1080/02786820500191348.
Day, J. P., Hart, M., & Robinson, M. S. (1975). Lead in urban street dust. Nature,253(5490), 343. https://doi.org/10.1038/253343a0.
Dehghani, S., Moore, F., Vasiluk, L., & Hale, B. A. (2018). The geochemical fingerprinting of geogenic particles in road deposited dust from Tehran metropolis, Iran: Implications for provenance tracking. Journal of Geochemical Exploration,190, 411–423. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gexplo.2018.04.011.
Dehghani, M. H., Sanaei, D., Nabizadeh, R., Nazmara, S., & Kumar, P. (2017). Source apportionment of BTEX compounds in Tehran, Iran using UNMIX receptor model. Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health,10(2), 225–234. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11869-016-0425-0.
Demková, L., Oboňa, J., Árvay, J., Michalková, J., & Lošák, T. (2019). Biomonitoring road dust pollution along streets with various traffic densities. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies,15, 3687–3696. https://doi.org/10.15244/pjoes/97354.
Duong, T. T. T., & Lee, B.-K. (2011). Determining contamination level of heavy metals in road dust from busy traffic areas with different characteristics. Journal of Environmental Management,92(3), 554–562. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.09.010.
Ernhart, C. B. (2006). Effects of lead on IQ in children. Environmental Health Perspectives,114(2), A85–A86. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.114-a85.
Facchinelli, A., Sacchi, E., & Mallen, L. (2001). Multivariate statistical and GIS-based approach to identify heavy metal sources in soils. Environmental Pollution,114(3), 313–324. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(00)00243-8.
Fang, G.-C., Chang, C.-N., Wu, Y.-S., Fu, P. P.-C., Yang, I.-L., & Chen, M.-H. (2004). Characterization, identification of ambient air and road dust polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in central Taiwan, Taichung. Science of The Total Environment,327(1), 135–146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2003.10.016.
Fergusson, J. E. (1987). The significance of the variability in analytical results for lead, copper, nickel, and zinc in street dust. Canadian Journal of Chemistry,65(5), 1002–1006. https://doi.org/10.1139/v87-171.
Fowler, B. A., Kimmel, C. A., Woods, J. S., McConnell, E. E., & Grant, L. D. (1980). Chronic low-level lead toxicity in the rat: III. An integrated assessment of long-term toxicity with special reference to the kidney. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology,56(1), 59–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/0041-008X(80)90131-3.
Fujiwara, F., Rebagliati, R. J., Dawidowski, L., Gómez, D., Polla, G., Pereyra, V., et al. (2011). Spatial and chemical patterns of size fractionated road dust collected in a megacitiy. Atmospheric Environment,45(8), 1497–1505. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.12.053.
Gogoi, M. M., Babu, S. S., Moorthy, K. K., Manoj, M. R., & Chaubey, J. P. (2013). Absorption characteristics of aerosols over the northwestern region of India: Distinct seasonal signatures of biomass burning aerosols and mineral dust. Atmospheric Environment,73, 92–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.03.009.
Gold, D. R., Litonjua, A., Schwartz, J., Lovett, E., Larson, A., Nearing, B., et al. (2000). Ambient pollution and heart rate variability. Circulation,101(11), 1267–1273. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.cir.101.11.1267.
Gope, M., Masto, R. E., George, J., & Balachandran, S. (2018a). Exposure and cancer risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the street dust of Asansol city, India. Sustainable Cities and Society,38, 616–626. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2018.01.006.
Gope, M., Masto, R. E., George, J., & Balachandran, S. (2018b). Tracing source, distribution and health risk of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) in street dust of Durgapur, India. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 154, 280–293.
Grandjean, P., & Landrigan, P. (2006). Developmental neurotoxicity of industrial chemicals. The Lancet,368(9553), 2167–2178. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69665-7.
Grigoratos, T., & Martini, G. (2015). Brake wear particle emissions: A review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research,22(4), 2491–2504. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-3696-8.
Gunaratne, M., Bandara, N., Medzorian, J., Chawla, M., & Ulrich, P. (2000). Correlation of tire wear and friction to texture of concrete pavements. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering,12(1), 46–54. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0899-1561(2000)12:1(46).
Gustafsson, M., Blomqvist, G., Gudmundsson, A., Dahl, A., Swietlicki, E., Bohgard, M., et al. (2008). Properties and toxicological effects of particles from the interaction between tyres, road pavement and winter traction material. Science of the Total Environment,393(2–3), 226–240. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.12.030.
Habibi, K. (1970). Characterization of particulate lead in vehicle exhaust-experimental techniques. Environmental Science and Technology,4(3), 239–248. https://doi.org/10.1021/es60038a001.
Han, X., & Lu, X. (2017). Spatial distribution, environmental risk and source of heavy metals in street dust from an industrial city in semi-arid area of China. Archives of Environmental Protection,43(2), 10–19. https://doi.org/10.1515/aep-2017-0013.
Hirschler, D. A., & Gilbert, L. F. (1964). Nature of lead in automobile exhaust gas. Archives of Environmental Health: An International Journal,8(2), 297–313. https://doi.org/10.1080/00039896.1964.10663670.
Ho, Y. B. (1979). Lead, copper, and manganese in street dust in Hong Kong. Journal of Asian Ecology; (USA),1, 1.
Hoekman, S. K., & Leland, A. (2018). Literature review on the effects of organometallic fuel additives in gasoline and diesel fuels. SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants,11(1), 105–124. https://doi.org/10.4271/04-11-01-0005.
Hueglin, C., Devos, W., Gehrig, R., Hofer, P., Kobler, J., Stahel, W. A., et al. (2000). Source apportionment of PM10 in Switzerland by application of a multivariate receptor model. Journal of Aerosol Science,31, 891–892.
IHME. (2016). The cost of air pollution: Strengthening the economic cause for action. University of Washington, Seattle: The World Bank and Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/781521473177013155/pdf/108141-REVISED-Cost-of-PollutionWebCORRECTEDfile.pdf. Accessed 9 February 2018.
IHME. (2017). GBD Compare. Seattle, WA: IHME, University of Washington. http://vizhub.healthdata.org/gbd-compare. Accessed 15 November 2019.
IHME. (2019). State of Global Air 2019 Report. Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. http://www.healthdata.org/news-release/state-global-air-2019-report. Accessed 15 October 2019.
IMD. (2019). Climate data of Vellore. http://www.imd.gov.in/section/climate/extreme/vellore2.htm. Accessed 1 October 2019.
Isaac, C. P. J., Sivakumar, A., & Kumar, C. R. P. (2012). Lead levels in breast milk, blood plasma and intelligence quotient: A health hazard for women and infants. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology,88(2), 145–149. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-011-0475-9.
Jiang, Y., Shi, L., Guang, A. L., Mu, Z., Zhan, H., & Wu, Y. (2017). Contamination levels and human health risk assessment of toxic heavy metals in street dust in an industrial city in Northwest China. Environmental Geochemistry and Health. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-017-0028-1.
Jianhua, Q., Xianguo, L., Lijuan, F., & Manping, Z. (2006). Characterization of dust and non-dust aerosols with SEM/EDX. Journal of Ocean University of China,5(1), 85. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02919381.
Kadhem, A., Yasir, A., & Enad, M. (2018). The effect of steel wire pre-tension on the tensile properties of bead ply in rubber tires. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering,433, 012077. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/433/1/012077.
Kesler, S. E. (2007). Mineral supply and demand into the 21st century. In Proceedings for a workshop on deposit modeling, mineral resource assessment, and their role in sustainable development. Circular (Vol. 1294, pp. 55–62).
Khillar, A. K., & Misra, P. K. (2014). Impact of auto-exhaust lead pollution on vegetation. Acta Ciencia Indica (Chemistry),40(3), 123–126.
Khpalwak, W., Jadoon, W. A., Abdel-dayem, S. M., & Sakugawa, H. (2019). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban road dust, Afghanistan: Implications for human health. Chemosphere,218, 517–526. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.11.087.
Kim, J.-H., Byun, H.-M., Chung, E.-C., Chung, H.-Y., & Bae, O.-N. (2013). Loss of integrity: Impairment of the blood-brain barrier in heavy metal-associated ischemic stroke. Toxicological Research,29(3), 157. https://doi.org/10.5487/TR.2013.29.3.157.
Kim, K.-H., Kabir, E., & Kabir, S. (2015). A review on the human health impact of airborne particulate matter. Environment International,74, 136–143. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2014.10.005.
Kupiainen, K. (2007). Road dust from pavement wear and traction sanding. Finnish Environment Institute.
Kupiainen, K. J., Tervahattu, H., Räisänen, M., Mäkelä, T., Aurela, M., & Hillamo, R. (2005). Size and composition of airborne particles from pavement wear, tires, and traction sanding. Environmental Science and Technology,39(3), 699–706. https://doi.org/10.1021/es035419e.
Lakiang, T., Nair, N. S., Ramaswamy, A., & Singhal, U. (2018). Economic impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A cross-sectional study at teaching hospital in South India. Journal of family medicine and family care,7(5), 1002–1006. https://doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_75_16.
Li, F., Huang, J., Zeng, G., Huang, X., Liu, W., Wu, H., et al. (2015). Spatial distribution and health risk assessment of toxic metals associated with receptor population density in street dust: A case study of Xiandao District, Changsha, Middle China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research,22(9), 6732–6742. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-3753-3.
Li, H., Qian, X., Hu, W., Wang, Y., & Gao, H. (2013). Chemical speciation and human health risk of trace metals in urban street dusts from a metropolitan city, Nanjing, SE China. Science of the Total Environment,456–457, 212–221. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.03.094.
Lin, M., Gui, H., Wang, Y., & Peng, W. (2017). Pollution characteristics, source apportionment, and health risk of heavy metals in street dust of Suzhou, China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research,24(2), 1987–1998. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-7934-0.
Ljung, K., Selinus, O., & Otabbong, E. (2006). Metals in soils of children’s urban environments in the small northern European city of Uppsala. Science of the Total Environment,366(2–3), 749–759. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2005.09.073.
Lv, W., Hu, Y., Li, E., Liu, H., Pan, H., Ji, S., et al. (2019). Evaluation of vehicle emission in Yunnan province from 2003 to 2015. Journal of Cleaner Production,207, 814–825. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.09.227.
Maring, H., Savoie, D. L., Izaguirre, M. A., Custals, L., & Reid, J. S. (2003). Mineral dust aerosol size distribution change during atmospheric transport. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD002536.
Martínez-Carrillo, M. Á., Solís, C., Isaac-Olive, K., Andrade, E., Beltrán-Hernández, R. I., Martínez-Reséndiz, G., et al. (2010). Atmospheric elemental concentration determined by particle-induced X-ray emission at tlaxcoapan in central Mexico, and its relation to Tula industrial-corridor emissions. Microchemical Journal,94(1), 48–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2009.08.011.
MHRD. (2015). Re classification of cities/towns on the basis of census-2011 for the purpose of grant of HRA to central government. New Delhi.
Moldovan, M., Rauch, S., Gómez, M., Palacios, M. A., & Morrison, G. M. (2001). Bioaccumulation of palladium, platinum and rhodium from urban particulates and sediments by the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus. Water Research,35(17), 4175–4183. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(01)00136-1.
Monks, P. (2019). Non-exhaust emissions from road traffic. Defra: Air Quality Experts Group.
Mori, I., Nishikawa, M., Tanimura, T., & Quan, H. (2003). Change in size distribution and chemical composition of kosa (Asian dust) aerosol during long-range transport. Atmospheric Environment,37(30), 4253–4263. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(03)00535-1.
Najmeddin, A., Moore, F., Keshavarzi, B., & Sadegh, Z. (2018). Pollution, source apportionment and health risk of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban street dust of Mashhad, the second largest city of Iran. Journal of Geochemical Exploration,190, 154–169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gexplo.2018.03.004.
Nicholson, K. W. (1988). A review of particle resuspension (1967). Atmospheric Environment,22(12), 2639–2651. https://doi.org/10.1016/0004-6981(88)90433-7.
Noulas, C., Tziouvalekas, M., & Karyotis, T. (2018). Zinc in soils, water and food crops. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology,49, 252–260. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.02.009.
OECD. (2016). The Economic Consequences of Outdoor Air Pollution. Paris: OECD. https://www.oecd.org/environment/indicators-modelling-outlooks/the-economic-consequences-of-outdoor-air-pollution-9789264257474-en.htm. Accessed 26 September 2019.
Oomen, A. G., Janssen, P., Dusseldorp, A., & Noorlander, C. W. (2008). Exposure to chemicals via house dust (No. RIVM Report 609021064/2008). Netherlands: RIVM.
Oros, D. R., & Simoneit, B. R. (2001). Identification and emission factors of molecular tracers in organic aerosols from biomass burning Part 2. Deciduous trees. Applied Geochemistry,16(13), 1545–1565. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-2927(01)00022-1.
Pachon, J. E., Weber, R. J., Zhang, X., Mulholland, J. A., & Russell, A. G. (2013). Revising the use of potassium (K) in the source apportionment of PM2.5. Atmospheric Pollution Research,4(1), 14–21. https://doi.org/10.5094/APR.2013.002.
Pariser, H. H., Backeberg, N. R., Masson, O. C. M., & Bedder, J. C. M. (2018). Changing nickel and chromium stainless steel markets—A review. Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy.,118(6), 563–568. https://doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2018/v118n6a1.
Park, K. S., KIM, H. J., & Kim, S. H. (2018). Attachable high-Mn steel brake disk. https://patents.google.com/patent/US10018236B2/en. Accessed 10 October 2019.
Pérez, N., Pey, J., Cusack, M., Reche, C., Querol, X., Alastuey, A., et al. (2010). Variability of particle number, black carbon, and PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 levels and speciation: Influence of road traffic emissions on urban air quality. Aerosol Science and Technology,44(7), 487–499. https://doi.org/10.1080/02786821003758286.
Peters, J. L., Perlstein, T. S., Perry, M. J., McNeely, E., & Weuve, J. (2010). Cadmium exposure in association with history of stroke and heart failure. Environmental Research,110(2), 199–206. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2009.12.004.
PHFI. (2017). Air pollution and health in India. Center for Environmental Health. https://www.ceh.org.in/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Air-Pollution-and-Health-in-India.pdf. Accessed 26 June 2018.
Praveena, S. M., & Aris, A. Z. (2018). Status, source identification, and health risks of potentially toxic element concentrations in road dust in a medium-sized city in a developing country. Environmental Geochemistry and Health,40(2), 749–762. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-017-0021-8.
Rajaram, B. S., Suryawanshi, P. V., Bhanarkar, A. D., & Rao, C. V. C. (2014). Heavy metals contamination in road dust in Delhi city, India. Environmental Earth Sciences,72(10), 3929–3938. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-014-3281-y.
Rogge, W. F., Hildemann, L. M., Mazurek, M. A., Cass, G. R., & Simoneit, B. R. T. (1993). Sources of fine organic aerosol. 3. Road dust, tire debris, and organometallic brake lining dust: Roads as sources and sinks. Environmental Science and Technology,27(9), 1892–1904. https://doi.org/10.1021/es00046a019.
Roney, N. (2005). Potential for human exposure. In Toxicological profile for zinc. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.
Rudnick, R. L., Shaner, A., & Portillo, K. (2019). Top 5 elements in the upper crust of Earth. https://repository.hou.usra.edu/handle/20.500.11753/1307. Accessed 10 October 2019.
Schwarze, P. E., Øvrevik, J., Låg, M., Refsnes, M., Nafstad, P., Hetland, R. B., et al. (2006). Particulate matter properties and health effects: Consistency of epidemiological and toxicological studies. Human and Experimental Toxicology,25(10), 559–579. https://doi.org/10.1177/096032706072520.
Shabbaj, I. I., Alghamdi, M. A., Shamy, M., Hassan, S. K., Alsharif, M. M., & Khoder, M. I. (2018). Risk assessment and implication of human exposure to road dust heavy metals in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health,15(1), 36. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010036.
Shemenski, R. M., Kim, D. K., & Starinshak, T. W. (1984). Copper-zinc-iron ternary alloy coated steel wire reinforcers in tires. Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company.
Shrivastava, R. K., Neeta, S., & Geeta, G. (2013). Air pollution due to road transportation in India: A review on assessment and reduction strategies. Journal of environmental research and development,8(1), 69.
Singh, S. K. (2005). Review of urban transportation in India. Journal of public transportation,8(1), 5.
Singh, A. K. (2011). Elemental chemistry and geochemical partitioning of heavy metals in road dust from Dhanbad and Bokaro regions, India. Environmental Earth Sciences,62(7), 1447–1459. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-010-0630-3.
Snilsberg, B., Gustafsson, M., Saba, R., & Uthus, N. (2018). Asphalt pavement wear and road dust pollution–effects of vehicle tires and driving speed on road dust properties. In Symposium on pavement surface characteristics (SURF), 8th, 2018, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Presented at the 8th symposium on pavement surface characteristics (SURF), Brisbane, Australia: Australian Road Research Board.
Srimuruganandam, B., & Nagendra, S. S. (2012). Source characterization of PM 10 and PM 2.5 mass using a chemical mass balance model at urban roadside. Science of the Total Environment,433, 8–19.
Sugiyama, I., & Williams, A. E. J. (2018). An approach to determining nickel, vanadium and other metal concentrations in crude oil. Analytica Chimica Acta,1002, 18–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2017.11.040.
Suryawanshi, P. V., Rajaram, B. S., Bhanarkar, A. D., & Rao, C. V. C. (2016). Determining heavy metal contamination of road dust in Delhi India. Atmósfera,29(3), 221–234. https://doi.org/10.20937/ATM.2016.29.03.04.
Swain, B. (2017). Recovery and recycling of lithium: A review. Separation and Purification Technology,172, 388–403. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2016.08.031.
Tang, Z., Chai, M., Cheng, J., Jin, J., Yang, Y., Nie, Z., et al. (2017). Contamination and health risks of heavy metals in street dust from a coal-mining city in eastern China. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety,138, 83–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2016.11.003.
Taylor, S. R. (1964). Abundance of chemical elements in the continental crust: A new table. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta,28(8), 1273–1285. https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(64)90129-2.
Teixeira, M. C. P., Carvalho, F. M., & Lins, L. (2015). Health-related quality of life of former lead workers in Brazil. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health,12(11), 14084–14093. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph121114084.
Thornton, I., Davies, D. J., Watt, J. M., & Quinn, M. J. (1990). Lead exposure in young children from dust and soil in the UK. Environmental Health Perspectives,89, 55–60. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.908955.
Thurston, G. D., & Spengler, J. D. (1985). A quantitative assessment of source contributions to inhalable particulate matter pollution in metropolitan Boston (1967). Atmospheric Environment,19(1), 9–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/0004-6981(85)90132-5.
Truex, T. J., Pierson, W. R., McKee, D. E., Shelef, M., & Baker, R. E. (1980). Effects of barium fuel additive and fuel sulfur level on diesel particulate emissions. Environmental Science and Technology,14(9), 1121–1124. https://doi.org/10.1021/es60169a018.
Turekian, K. K., & Wedepohl, K. H. (1961). Distribution of the elements in some major units of the earth’s crust. GSA Bulletin,72(2), 175–192. https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1961)72%5b175:DOTEIS%5d2.0.CO;2.
U.S. EPA. (1989). Risk-assessment guidance for superfund. Volume 1. Human health evaluation manual. Part A. Interim report (Final). U.S. EPA.
U.S. EPA. (2010). Alaska native village air quality factsheet—Road dust. U.S. EPA.
U.S. EPA, O. (1996). EPA Method 3050B: Acid Digestion of Sediments, Sludges, and Soils. US EPA. https://www.epa.gov/homeland-security-research/epa-method-3050b-acid-digestion-sediments-sludges-and-soils. Accessed 31 March 2018.
Valotto, G., Zannoni, D., Rampazzo, G., Visin, F., Formenton, G., & Gasparello, A. (2018). Characterization and preliminary risk assessment of road dust collected in Venice airport (Italy). Journal of Geochemical Exploration,190, 142–153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gexplo.2018.03.005.
Van den Berg, R. (1994). Human exposure to soil contamination: A qualitative analysis towards proposals for humane toxicological intervention values. Bilthoven: National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection.
van der Denier, H., Hulskotte, J., Jozwicka, M., Kranenburg, R., Kuenen, J., & Visschedijk, A. (2018). Chapter 5—European emission inventories and projections for road transport non-exhaust emissions: Analysis of consistency and gaps in emission inventories from EU member states. Non-Exhaust Emissions. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-811770-5.00005-4.
Vellore Corporation. (2019). ||Welcome to Vellore city municipal corporation||. archive.is. http://archive.is/1FnVD. Accessed 1 October 2019.
Viana, M., Kuhlbusch, T. A. J., Querol, X., Alastuey, A., Harrison, R. M., Hopke, P. K., et al. (2008). Source apportionment of particulate matter in Europe: A review of methods and results. Journal of Aerosol Science,39(10), 827–849. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaerosci.2008.05.007.
Wan, D., Han, Z., Yang, J., Yang, G., & Liu, X. (2016). Heavy metal pollution in settled dust associated with different urban functional areas in a heavily air-polluted city in North China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13111119.
Ward, J. J., Thornbury, D. D., Lemons, J. E., & Dunham, W. K. (1990). Metal-induced sarcoma. A case report and literature review. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research,252, 299–306. https://doi.org/10.1097/00003086-199003000-00041.
Watson, J. G., Chow, J. C., Lu, Z., Fujita, E. M., Lowenthal, D. H., Lawson, D. R., et al. (1994). Chemical mass balance source apportionment of PM10 during the Southern California air quality study. Aerosol Science and Technology,21(1), 1–36. https://doi.org/10.1080/02786829408959693.
Whitehead, L. S., & Buchanan, S. D. (2019). Childhood lead poisoning: A perpetual environmental justice issue? Journal of public health management and practice: JPHMP, 25 Suppl 1, Lead Poisoning Prevention. https://doi.org/10.1097/PHH.0000000000000891.
WHO. (2016a). Ambient (outdoor) air quality and health. WHO. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs313/en/. Accessed 9 February 2018.
WHO. (2016b). WHO Global Urban Ambient Air Pollution Database. http://www.who.int/phe/health_topics/outdoorair/databases/cities/en/. Accessed 9 February 2018.
WHO. (2018). Global Alliance to Eliminate Lead Paint/Lead Paint Alliance Advisory Council Meeting.
Wolf, K., Stafoggia, M., Cesaroni, G., Andersen, Z. J., Beelen, R., Galassi, C., et al. (2015). Long-term exposure to particulate matter constituents and the incidence of coronary events in 11 European cohorts. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass),26(4), 565–574. https://doi.org/10.1097/EDE.0000000000000300.
Yaroshevsky, A. A. (2006). Abundances of chemical elements in the Earth’s crust. Geochemistry International,44(1), 48–55. https://doi.org/10.1134/S001670290601006X.
Yoshida, H., Izhar, S., Nishio, E., Utsumi, Y., Kakimori, N., & Asghari, F. S. (2015). Recovery of indium from TFT and CF glasses of LCD wastes using NaOH-enhanced sub-critical water. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids,104, 40–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.supflu.2015.05.016.
Zeng, X., Xu, X., Qin, Q., Ye, K., Wu, W., & Huo, X. (2019). Heavy metal exposure has adverse effects on the growth and development of preschool children. Environmental Geochemistry and Health,41(1), 309–321. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-018-0114-z.
Zhang, X., Hecobian, A., Zheng, M., Frank, N. H., & Weber, R. J. (2010). Biomass burning impact on PM2.5 over the southeastern US during 2007: Integrating chemically speciated FRM filter measurements, MODIS fire counts and PMF analysis. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-6839-2010.
Zhao, N., Lu, X., & Chao, S. (2016). Risk assessment of potentially toxic elements in smaller than 100-μm street dust particles from a valley-city in northwestern China. Environmental Geochemistry and Health,38(2), 483–496. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-015-9734-8.
Zhao, N., Lu, X., Chao, S., & Xu, X. (2015). Multivariate statistical analysis of heavy metals in less than 100 μm particles of street dust from Xining. China. Environmental Earth Sciences,73(5), 2319–2327. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-014-3578-x.
Zhao, H., Yin, C., Chen, M., & Wang, W. (2009). Risk assessment of heavy metals in street dust particles to a stream network. Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal,18(2), 173–183. https://doi.org/10.1080/15320380802660263.
Zheng, M., Cass, G. R., Ke, L., Wang, F., Schauer, J. J., Edgerton, E. S., et al. (2007). Source apportionment of daily fine particulate matter at Jefferson Street, Atlanta, GA, during summer and winter. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association (1995),57(2), 228–242. https://doi.org/10.1080/10473289.2007.10465322.
Zheng, N., Liu, J., Wang, Q., & Liang, Z. (2010). Heavy metals exposure of children from stairway and sidewalk dust in the smelting district, northeast of China. Atmospheric Environment,44(27), 3239–3245. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.06.002.
Žibret, G., Tonder, D. V., & Žibret, L. (2013). Metal content in street dust as a reflection of atmospheric dust emissions from coal power plants, metal smelters, and traffic. Environmental Science and Pollution Research,20(7), 4455–4468. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-012-1398-7.
We extend our sincere thanks to Dr. Bhaskar Das, Lab-in-charge, Environmental Engineering Laboratory, School of Civil Engineering, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, for offering microwave digestion and ICP–OES facility.
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Jose, J., Srimuruganandam, B. Investigation of road dust characteristics and its associated health risks from an urban environment. Environ Geochem Health (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-020-00521-6
- Road dust
- Particulate matter
- Source identification
- Potentially toxic elements
- Health risk
- Contamination factor