Compositional and health risk assessment of drinking water from health facilities of District Vehari, Pakistan

  • Behzad MurtazaEmail author
  • Natasha
  • Muhammad Amjad
  • Muhammad Shahid
  • Muhammad Imran
  • Noor Samad Shah
  • Ghulam Abbas
  • Muhammad Asif Naeem
  • Muhammad Amjad
Original Paper


Arsenic (As) is a potentially toxic and carcinogenic metalloid. It has gained considerable attention owing to its high ecotoxic nature. High As contamination of groundwater in scattered areas is the current status of Pakistan. A number of assessments exist for the As contamination of the drinking water in District Vehari, Pakistan. However, there is scarcity of data about As contents in drinking water of health facilities and healthcare centers in District Vehari. The current study, therefore, was carried out to assess As concentration and associated health risk in the drinking water of three health facilities (district head quarter, rural health center and basic health unit) of District Vehari. In total, 75 drinking water samples were collected and examined for As contents in addition to physicochemical characteristics such as electrical conductivity, pH, total soluble salts, chloride, carbonates, bicarbonates, fluoride, nitrate, nitrite, calcium, magnesium and iron. Results indicated that the groundwater samples are not fully fit for drinking purposes with respect to several parameters, especially the alarming levels of As. It was found that 52% of drinking water samples of Vehari have As concentration greater than WHO permissible limit (10 µg/L) and 17% have As concentration greater than Pak-EPA permissible limit (50 µg/L). The risk assessment parameters (average daily dose, hazard quotient and carcinogenic risk) showed possible carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks associated with ingestion of As-contaminated drinking water in the healthcare facilities. Based on the results of the present study, it is anticipated that hospitals and health centers in Vehari are in need of safe drinking water. The implementation of national/international standards for drinking water in healthcare facilities is a necessary measure to improve the services and increase local access to safe drinking water. The same may be applied to other public offices and organizations such as educational institutes and district government offices.


Human health risk Drinking water Potentially toxic metal Health facilities Physicochemical analysis 


Supplementary material

10653_2019_465_MOESM1_ESM.docx (28 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 27 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Behzad Murtaza
    • 1
    Email author
  • Natasha
    • 1
  • Muhammad Amjad
    • 2
  • Muhammad Shahid
    • 1
  • Muhammad Imran
    • 1
  • Noor Samad Shah
    • 1
  • Ghulam Abbas
    • 1
  • Muhammad Asif Naeem
    • 1
  • Muhammad Amjad
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental SciencesCOMSATS University IslamabadVehariPakistan
  2. 2.Public Health Engineering DepartmentDistrict Water Testing LaboratoryVehariPakistan

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