Sources and monthly and seasonal concentration variation study of atmospheric particulates and particles-bound PAEs

  • Guor-Cheng FangEmail author
  • Tse-Tsung Ho
  • Yu-Cheng Chen
  • Yuan-Jie Zhuang
  • Chao-Lang Kao
  • Gui-Ren Liang
Original Research


The main goal of this study is to measure the ambient air of total suspended particulates at a mixed (traffic, residential and commercial) sampling site. And the concentrations of phthalate acid ester (PAE) which attached on total suspended particles were also analyzed. In addition, the possible sources of PAEs were also analyzed by the method of back trajectories. Finally, appropriate statistical methods were also used to test monthly and seasonal mean pollutants’ (particulates, PAEs) concentration differences at this sampling site. The results indicated that the monthly concentration variation trends were similar for DEHP and total PAEs with the results as followed: November > October > July > December > September. In addition, back trajectories results also indicated that the main pollutant parcels were came from the east side of Taiwan in July. And the pollutant parcels were came from the north side of Taiwan during the month of September, October, November and December in this study. Moreover, the results also showed that the DEHP, DNOP, total PAEs’ concentrations with TSP and meteorological conditions were not significantly different. But the relationship among DEHP, DNOP and total PAEs was significantly different; particularly, the relationship between DEHP and total PAEs was highly correlated in this study (R2 = 0.994). Finally, the statistical analysis of total PAEs T test statistic for mean monthly concentrations results suggested that the sample population means were not differed significantly. In other words, there were not any mean monthly concentration differences for PAEs at this sampling site. The only exception was occurred in the month of September versus November. The results showed that there is a statistically significant PAEs’ concentration difference between the input groups (September vs. November).


Phthalates esters Total suspended particulates Back trajectories Statistical tests 



The authors would like to express their appreciations for the financial support under the Project No. 107-2221-E-241-003.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guor-Cheng Fang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tse-Tsung Ho
    • 2
  • Yu-Cheng Chen
    • 3
  • Yuan-Jie Zhuang
    • 1
  • Chao-Lang Kao
    • 4
  • Gui-Ren Liang
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Safety, Health, and Environmental EngineeringHungkuang UniversityTaichung CityTaiwan (R.O.C.)
  2. 2.Research Center for Environmental ChangesAcademia SinicaTaipeiTaiwan
  3. 3.National Health Research InstitutesMiaoliTaiwan
  4. 4.Department of Chemical and Materials EngineeringNational Chin-Yi University of TechnologyTaichung CityTaiwan (R.O.C.)

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