Metal(loid) bioaccessibility and children’s health risk assessment of soil and indoor dust from rural and urban school and residential areas

  • Junwei MaEmail author
  • Yuqian Li
  • Yanzhong Liu
  • Xunrui Wang
  • Chunye Lin
  • Hongguang Cheng
Original Paper


This study focused on the oral bioaccessibility and children health risks of metal(loid)s (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in soil/indoor dust of school and households from Lanzhou, China. The simple bioaccessibility extraction test method was applied to assess bioaccessibility, and children’s health risk was assessed via statistical modeling (hazard quotients, hazard index and incremental lifetime carcinogenic risk). Metal(loid) content and bioaccessibility in indoor dust samples were significantly higher than those in corresponding soil samples (p < 0.05). The order for mean values of bioaccessibility of the elements in soil was as follows: Cd (57.1%) > Zn (44.6%) > Pb (39.9%) > Cu (33.2%) > Ni (12.4%) > Cr (5.3%) > As (4.4%), while for indoor dust, the order was: As (73.0%) > Cd (68.4%) > Pb (63.3%) > Zn (60.4%) > Cu (36.5%) > Ni (25.2%) > Cr (13.6%). The Pearson correlation coefficient showed that metal(loid) bioaccessibility was in general significantly negatively correlated to the Al, Fe and Mn contents. Neither noncarcinogenic nor carcinogenic risks exceeded the tolerance interval for 3–5- and 6–9-year-old children for all elements. They both were mostly attributed to As considering metal(loid)s types and to school indoor dust considering sources. Therefore, maintaining interior sanitation would be an effective measure to reduce the potential health effects of indoor dust on children.


Soil Indoor dust Bioaccessibility Health risk assessment Metal(loid)s 



This study was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2017YFA0605003), Special Environmental Research Funds for Public Welfare (201309044), and Key Laboratory for Solid Waste Management and Environment Safety (Tsinghua University SWMES2015-12). The authors are grateful to all individuals who helped with the sampling and the questionnaire survey.

Supplementary material

10653_2019_415_MOESM1_ESM.docx (31 kb)
Supplementary file1 (DOCX 30 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Junwei Ma
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yuqian Li
    • 1
  • Yanzhong Liu
    • 1
  • Xunrui Wang
    • 2
  • Chunye Lin
    • 1
  • Hongguang Cheng
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of EnvironmentBeijing Normal UniversityBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.College of Agronomy & Resource and EnvironmentTianjin Agricultural UniversityTianjinPeople’s Republic of China

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