Endocrine disrupting compounds in sediment from KimNguu river, Northern area of Vietnam: a comprehensive assessment of seasonal variation, accumulation pattern and ecological risk

  • Vu Duc ToanEmail author
  • To Xuan Quynh
  • Nguyen Thi Lan Huong
Original Paper


This research presents the assessment of seasonal variation, accumulation pattern and ecological risk of selected endocrine disrupting compounds (S-EDCs) in sediment samples covering six sites in KimNguu river, Hanoi, Northern area of Vietnam. Selected EDCs compose polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Sediment sampling was carried out in dry season (April) and wet season (October) in 2018. Results pointed out a significant contamination with ∑6PCBs, ∑16PAHs and ∑7PBDE concentrations ranging from 4.73 to 36.34 ng g−1 dw, from 3.57 to 84.39 ng g−1 dw and from 4.49 to 12.49 ng g−1 dw, respectively. Composition analyses indicated the predominance of PCB 138, PCB 153, M-PAHs (Middle molecular weight PAHs: BaA, Chr, Pyr, Flt), BDE-47, BDE-99 and BDE-209. The values of TEQDL-PCBs, TEQ∑8PAHs and TEQ∑16PAHs range from 4.6 to 10.4 ng kg−1 dw, from 0.28 to 1.28 ng g−1 dw and from 0.29 to 1.38 ng g−1 dw, respectively. Ecological risks of S-EDCs range from very low to medium levels in the sediment of KimNguu river.


Seasonal variation EDCs Sediment Ecological risk 



This research is funded by Vietnam National Foundation for Science and Technology Development (NAFOSTED) under Grant Number 105.08-2017.06.


  1. Frignani, M., Piazza, R., Bellucci, L. G., Cu, N. H., Zangrando, R., Albertazzi, S., et al. (2007). Polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments of the Tam Giang-Cau Hai Lagoon, Central Vietnam. Chemosphere, 67, 1786–1793.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Hanh, D. T., Kadokami, K., Shuangye, P., Naoki, M., & Trung, Q. N. (2014). Screening and analysis of 940 organic micro-pollutants in river sediments in Vietnam using an automated identification and quantification database system for GC–MS. Chemosphere, 107, 462–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Helmfrid, I., Berglund, M., Löfman, O., & Wingren, G. (2012). Health effects and exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and metals in a contaminated community. Environmental International, 44, 53–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Herbstman, J. B., Sjödin, A., Kurzon, M., Lederman, S. A., Jones, R. S., Rauh, V., et al. (2010). Prenatal exposure to PBDEs and neurodevelopment. Environmental Health Perspectives, 118(5), 712–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hideshige, T., Mahua, S., Ayako, T., Kaoruko, M., Michio, M., Mohamad, P. Z., et al. (2009). Sources of sedimentary PAHs in tropical Asian waters: Differentiation between pyrogenic and petrogenic sources by alkyl homolog abundance. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 58, 189–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hoai, P. M., Giger, W., Ngoc, N. T., Minh, N. H., Viet, P. H., Berg, M., et al. (2010). Recent levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments of the sewer system in Hanoi, Vietnam. Environmental Pollution, 158, 913–920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Jiao, W., Tieyu, W., & Jong, S. K. (2013). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils along the coastal and estuarine areas of the northern Bohai and Yellow Seas, China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185, 8185–8195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Karishma, H., Mirzanur, R., Amit, P., & Raza, R. (2015). Street dust bound PAHs, carbon and heavy metals in Guwahati city – Seasonality, toxicity and sources. Sustainable Cities and Society, 19, 17–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Keshavarzifard, M., Mohamad, P., Tan, S., & Shuhaimi, M. (2014). Baseline distributions and sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface sediments from the Prai and Malacca Rivers, Peninsular Malaysia. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 88, 366–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kim, K.-H., Jahan, S. A., Kabir, E., & Brown, R. J. (2013). A review of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their human health effects. Environmental International, 60, 71–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Li, W.-H., Tian, Y.-Z., & Shi, G.-L. (2012). Concentrations and sources of PAHs in surface sediments of the Fenhe reservoir and watershed, China. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 75, 198–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Liu, Y., Zheng, J. G., Yu, H., Martin, M., Richardson, J. B., Lam, M. H. W., et al. (2005). Poly brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediments and mussel tissues from Hong Kong marine waters. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 50, 1173–1184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Long, E. R., MacDonald, D. D., Smith, S. L., & Calder, F. D. (1995). Incidence of adverse biological effects within ranges of chemical concentrations in marine and estuarine sediments. Environmental Management, 19, 81–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ming, H. W., Liping, J., Gene, J. Z., Minh, T. B., Bruce, R., Liqi, C., et al. (2009). Persistent toxic substances in remote lake and coastal sediments from Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic: Levels, sources and fluxes. Environmental Pollution, 157, 1342–1351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Minh, T. B., Anh, H. Q., Nam, V. D., Tri, T. M., Ha, N. M., Ngoc, N. T., et al. (2017). Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in plastic products, indoor dust, sediment and fish from informal e-waste recycling sites in Vietnam: a comprehensive assessment of contamination, accumulation pattern, emissions, and human exposure. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 39(4), 935–954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mitra, S., Simonetta, C., Karla, P., & Ondrej, A. (2018). Characterization, source identification and risk associated with polyaromatic and chlorinated organic contaminants (PAHs, PCBs, PCBs and OCPs) in the surface sediments of Hooghly estuary, India. Chemosphere, 221, 154–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Monia R. (2013). Chapter 5 - Perfluorinated organic compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers compounds – Levels and toxicity in aquatic environments: A review. In Organic pollutants, monitoring, risk and treatment (pp. 111–138), Intech Publisher.Google Scholar
  18. Muhammad, A. A. (2017). Persistent organic pollutants (POPs): a global issue, a global challenge. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24, 4223–4227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Romano, S., Piazza, R., Mugnai, C., Giuliani, S., Bellucci, L. G., Huu, C. H., et al. (2013). PBDEs and PCBs in sediments of the Thi Nai Lagoon (Central Vietnam) and soils from its mainland. Chemosphere, 90, 2396–2402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ruiz-Fernández, A. C., Ontiveros-Cuadras, J. F., Sericano, J. L., Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A., Wee-Kwong, L. L., Dunbar, R. B., et al. (2014). Long-range atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants to remote lacustrine environments. Science of the Total Environment, 493, 505–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Safe S. (1987). PCBs and Human Health. In: Safe S. (eds) Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Mammalian and Environmental Toxicology. Environmental Toxin Series, Vol 1. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  22. Taoufik, N., Christine, R., Chouba, L., Hélène, B., & Hamadi, B. (2013). Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in surface sediments from Monastir Bay (Tunisia, Central Mediterranean): Occurrence, distribution and seasonal variations. Chemosphere, 93(3), 487–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Toan, V. D., & Son, H. V. (2014). Residue and Ecological Risk Assessment of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in Sediment from CauBay River, Vietnam, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology. International Journal of Environmental, Chemical, Ecological, Geological and Geophysical Engineering, 8(5), 292–295.Google Scholar
  24. Toan, V. D., Thao, V. D., Walder, J., Ha, C. T., & Schmutz, H.-R. (2007). Level and distribution of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in surface soils from Hanoi, Vietnam. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 78, 351–360.Google Scholar
  25. Toan, V. D., & Quy, N. P. (2015). Residue of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment from CauBay river and their impact on agricultural soil, human health risk in KieuKy area, Vietnam. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 95(2), 177–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Van Den Berg, Birnbaum, M., & Denison, L. S. (2006). World Health Organization reevaluation of human and Mammalian toxic equivalency factors for dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Toxicological Sciences, 93, 223–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wang, W., Junhong, B., Guangliang, Z., Jia, J., & Xin, W. (2019). Occurrence, sources and ecotoxicological risks of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment cores from urban, rural and reclamation-affected rivers of the Pearl River Delta, China. Chemosphere, 218, 359–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. WHO. (2012). World Health Organization’s International Programmer on Chemical Safety. Geneva, Switzerland: Global assessment of the state of the science of endocrine disruptors.Google Scholar
  29. Wu, F., Jianyang, G., Hong, C., Haiqing, L., Xiaoli, Z., Bixian, M., et al. (2012). Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and decabromodiphenylethane in sediments from twelve lakes in China. Environmental Pollution, 162, 262–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EnvironmentThuyloi UniversityHanoiVietnam
  2. 2.Trade Union UniversityHanoiVietnam

Personalised recommendations