Advertisement

Investigation of geospatial distribution of PAH compounds in soil phase and determination of soil–air exchange direction in a megacity

  • Aigerim Yukhimets
  • S. Levent KuzuEmail author
  • Ezgi Akyüz
  • Arslan Saral
Original Paper
  • 20 Downloads

Abstract

In this study, determination of possible sources, soil–air exchange direction, and spatial distribution of PAH concentrations was aimed. In this scope, soil samples were collected from 35 different points, which have the urban and rural characteristics, from European and Asian Sides in Istanbul. The average ∑16PAH concentrations were found as 22.11 ng/g dw for urban site and 19.53 ng/g dw for rural site, respectively. The highest concentration was 279.5 ng/g dw. PAH concentrations were higher in urban site than rural site. Acenaphthene and benzo[k]fluoranthene were observed as the dominant species. PAH concentrations are observed higher mostly in north and west parts of European Side and south and east parts of Asian Side. There was net evaporation from soil to air for lower molecular weight PAHs with 2, 3 rings, while high molecular weight PAHs with 4, 5, 6 rings accumulated in the soil at both urban and rural sites. PAHs were mostly originated from coal burning and the use of diesel engine vehicles.

Keywords

PAHs Environmental fate Soil–air exchange Fugacity Spatial distribution 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was funded by the research fund of TUBITAK (Project Number: 111Y225). The authors greatly acknowledge Gülsüm Summak and Hatice Çoltu for their efforts during laboratory step of the study.

Supplementary material

10653_2019_369_MOESM1_ESM.doc (728 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 727 kb)

References

  1. Agarwal, T., Khillare, P. S., Shridhar, V., & Ray, S. (2009). Pattern, sources and toxic potential of PAHs in the agricultural soils of Delhi, India. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 163(2–3), 1033–1039.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.07.058.Google Scholar
  2. Aichner, B., Glaser, B., & Zech, W. (2007). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in urban soils from Kathmandu, Nepal. Organic Geochemistry, 38(4), 700–715.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2006.11.002.Google Scholar
  3. Aislabie, J., Balks, M., Astori, N., Stevenson, G., & Symons, R. (1999). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fuel-oil contaminated soils, Antarctica. Chemosphere, 39(13), 2201–2207.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(99)00144-7.Google Scholar
  4. Augusto, S., Máguas, C., Matos, J., Pereira, M. J., & Branquinho, C. (2010). Lichens as an integrating tool for monitoring PAH atmospheric deposition: A comparison with soil, air and pine needles. Environmental Pollution, 158(2), 483–489.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2009.08.016.Google Scholar
  5. Bozlaker, A., Muezzinoglu, A., & Odabasi, M. (2008). Atmospheric concentrations, dry deposition and air–soil exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an industrial region in Turkey. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 153(3), 1093–1102.Google Scholar
  6. Budzinski, H., Jones, I., Bellocq, J., Piérard, C., & Garrigues, P. (1997). Evaluation of sediment contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Gironde estuary. Marine Chemistry, 58(1–2), 85–97.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4203(97)00028-5.Google Scholar
  7. Callén, M. S., la Cruz, M. T., López, J. M., & Mastral, A. M. (2011). PAH in airborne particulate matter: Carcinogenic character of PM10 samples and assessment of the energy generation impact. Fuel Processing Technology, 92(2), 176–182.Google Scholar
  8. Cetin, B., Ozturk, F., Keles, M., & Yurdakul, S. (2017a). PAHs and PCBs in an Eastern Mediterranean megacity, Istanbul: Their spatial and temporal distributions, air-soil exchange and toxicological effects. Environmental Pollution, 220, 1322–1332.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.11.002.Google Scholar
  9. Cetin, B., Yurdakul, S., Keles, M., Celik, I., Ozturk, F., & Dogan, C. (2017b). Atmospheric concentrations, distributions and air-soil exchange tendencies of PAHs and PCBs in a heavily industrialized area in Kocaeli, Turkey. Chemosphere, 183, 69–79.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.05.103.Google Scholar
  10. Choi, S. D., Shunthirasingham, C., Daly, G. L., Xiao, H., Lei, Y. D., & Wania, F. (2009). Levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Canadian mountain air and soil are controlled by proximity to roads. Environmental Pollution, 157(12), 3199–3206.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2009.05.032.Google Scholar
  11. Chung, M. K., Hu, R., Cheung, K. C., & Wong, M. H. (2007). Pollutants in Hong Kong soils: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Chemosphere, 67(3), 464–473.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.09.062.Google Scholar
  12. Cousins, I. T., Beck, A. J., & Jones, K. C. (1999). A review of the processes involved in the exchange of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) across the air–soil interface. Science of the Total Environment, 228(1), 5–24.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(99)00015-7.Google Scholar
  13. Demircioglu, E., Sofuoglu, A., & Odabasi, M. (2011). Particle-phase dry deposition and air–soil gas exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Izmir, Turkey. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 186(1), 328–335.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.11.005.Google Scholar
  14. Ding, Y., Huang, H., Zhang, Y., Zheng, H., Zeng, F., Chen, W., et al. (2018). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in agricultural soils from Northwest Fujian, Southeast China: Spatial distribution, source apportionment, and toxicity evaluation. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 195, 121–129.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gexplo.2017.12.009.Google Scholar
  15. Ene, A., Bogdevich, O., & Sion, A. (2012). Levels and distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in topsoils from SE Romania. Science of the Total Environment, 439, 76–86.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.09.004.Google Scholar
  16. EPA, U. S. (1999). Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air using gas chromatography. Mass Spectrometry (GC/MD), Compendium Method TO-13A, 2nd edn (Cincinnati, OH 45268, 1999).Google Scholar
  17. Harner, T., Bidleman, T. F., Jantunen, L. M. M., & Mackay, D. (2001). Soil–air exchange model of persistent pesticides in the United States cotton belt. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 20(7), 1612–1621.  https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.5620200728.Google Scholar
  18. Hippelein, M., & McLachlan, M. S. (1998). Soil/air partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds. 1. Method development and influence of physical-chemical properties. Environmental Science and Technology, 32(2), 310–316.Google Scholar
  19. Kanakidou, M., Mihalopoulos, N., Kindap, T., Im, U., Vrekoussis, M., Gerasopoulos, E., et al. (2011). Megacities as hot spots of air pollution in the East Mediterranean. Atmospheric Environment, 45(6), 1223–1235.Google Scholar
  20. Karaca, G. (2016). Spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in soils from Bursa, Turkey. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 70(2), 406–417.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-015-0248-2.Google Scholar
  21. Kaya, E., Dumanoglu, Y., Kara, M., Altiok, H., Bayram, A., Elbir, T., et al. (2012). Spatial and temporal variation and air–soil exchange of atmospheric PAHs and PCBs in an industrial region. Atmospheric Pollution Research, 3(4), 435–449.  https://doi.org/10.5094/APR.2012.050.Google Scholar
  22. Kindap, T., Unal, A., Chen, S. H., Hu, Y., Odman, M. T., & Karaca, M. (2006). Long-range aerosol transport from Europe to Istanbul, Turkey. Atmospheric Environment, 40(19), 3536–3547.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.01.055.Google Scholar
  23. Kuzu, S. L. (2016). Compositional variation of PCBs, PAHs, and OCPs at gas phase and size segregated particle phase during dust incursion from the saharan desert in the northwestern anatolian Peninsula. Advances in Meteorology, 2016, 1–12.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/7153286.Google Scholar
  24. Kuzu, S. L. (2019). Source identification of combustion-related air pollution during an episode and afterwards in winter-time in Istanbul. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26(17), 16815–16824.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-7831-6.Google Scholar
  25. Kuzu, S. L., & Saral, A. (2017). Air and soil concentrations and source identification of ambient polychlorinated biphenyls in the Northeastern mediterranean region. CLEAN: Soil, Air, Water, 45(5), 1600050.  https://doi.org/10.1002/clen.201600050.Google Scholar
  26. Kuzu, S. L., Saral, A., Güneş, G., & Karadeniz, A. (2016). Evaluation of background soil and air polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations on a hill at the outskirts of a metropolitan city. Chemosphere, 154, 79–89.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.03.095.Google Scholar
  27. Kuzu, S. L., Saral, A., Summak, G., Çoltu, H., & Demir, S. (2014). Ambient polychlorinated biphenyl levels and their evaluation in a metropolitan city. Science of the Total Environment, 472, 13–19.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.11.031.Google Scholar
  28. Lang C, Tao S, Wang X, Zhang G, Li J, Fu J (2007) Seasonal variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Pearl River Delta region, China. Atmospheric Environment, 41(37), 8370–8379.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.06.015.Google Scholar
  29. Li, X., Ma, L., Liu, X., Fu, S., Cheng, H., & Xu, X. (2006). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in urban soil from Beijing, China. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 18(5), 944–950.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-0742(06)60019-3.Google Scholar
  30. Lima, A. L. C., Farrington, J. W., & Reddy, C. M. (2005). Combustion-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the environment—A review. Environmental Forensics, 6(2), 109–131.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15275920590952739.Google Scholar
  31. Liu, Y., Liu, L., Lin, J.-M., Tang, N., & Hayakawa, K. (2006). Distribution and characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds in airborne particulates of east asia. China Particuology, 4(6), 283–292.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1672-2515(07)60277-2.Google Scholar
  32. Liu, L., Liu, Y., Lin, J., Tang, N., Hayakawa, K., & Maeda, T. (2007). Development of analytical methods for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in airborne particulates: A review. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 19(1), 1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-0742(07)60001-1.Google Scholar
  33. Ma, W.-L., Li, Y.-F., Qi, H., Sun, D.-Z., Liu, L.-Y., & Wang, D.-G. (2010). Seasonal variations of sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to a northeastern urban city, China. Chemosphere, 79(4), 441–447.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.01.048.Google Scholar
  34. Ma, J., & Zhou, Y. (2011). Soil pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: A comparison of two Chinese cities. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 23(9), 1518–1523.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-0742(10)60592-X.Google Scholar
  35. Manoli, E., Kouras, A., & Samara, C. (2004). Profile analysis of ambient and source emitted particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from three sites in northern Greece. Chemosphere, 56(9), 867–878.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.03.013.Google Scholar
  36. Meijer, S. N., Shoeib, M., Jones, K. C., & Harner, T. (2003). Air–soil exchange of organochlorine pesticides in agricultural soils. 2. Laboratory measurements of the soil–air partition coefficient. Environmental Science and Technology, 37(7), 1300–1305.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es020541j.Google Scholar
  37. Rathore, H. S., & Nollet, L. M. L. (2012). Pesticides evaluation of environmental pollution—google books. Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  38. Roelfsema, M. R. G., Levchenko, V., & Hedrich, R. (2004). ABA depolarizes guard cells in intact plants, through a transient activation of R- and S-type anion channels. The Plant Journal, 37(4), 578–588.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2003.01985.x.Google Scholar
  39. Saber, D., Mauro, D., & Sirivedhin, T. (2006). Environmental forensics investigation in sediments near a former manufactured gas plant site. Environmental Forensics, 7(1), 65–75.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15275920500506881.Google Scholar
  40. Salihoglu, G., Tasdemir, Y., Salihoglu, N. K., Baskaya, H. S., & Aksoy, E. (2013). Seasonal variations of polychlorinated biphenyls in surface soils and air–soil exchange in Bursa, Turkey. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 65(4), 619–634.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-013-9943-z.Google Scholar
  41. Thiombane, M., Albanese, S., Di Bonito, M., Lima, A., Zuzolo, D., Rolandi, R., et al. (2019). Source patterns and contamination level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban and rural areas of Southern Italian soils. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 41(2), 507–528.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-018-0147-3.Google Scholar
  42. Tobiszewski, M., & Namieśnik, J. (2012). PAH diagnostic ratios for the identification of pollution emission sources. Environmental Pollution, 162, 110–119.Google Scholar
  43. Vardar, N., Tasdemir, Y., Odabasi, M., & Noll, K. E. (2004). Characterization of atmospheric concentrations and partitioning of PAHs in the Chicago atmosphere. Science of the Total Environment, 327(1–3), 163–174.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2003.05.002.Google Scholar
  44. Wang, W., Simonich, S., Giri, B., Chang, Y., Zhang, Y., Jia, Y., et al. (2011). Atmospheric concentrations and air–soil gas exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing-Tianjin region, North China. Science of the Total Environment, 409(15), 2942–2950.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.04.021.Google Scholar
  45. Wang, C., Wang, X., Gong, P., & Yao, T. (2014). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface soil across the Tibetan Plateau: Spatial distribution, source and air–soil exchange. Environmental Pollution, 184, 138–144.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2013.08.029.Google Scholar
  46. Wong, F., Robson, M., Diamond, M. L., Harrad, S., & Truong, J. (2009). Concentrations and chiral signatures of POPs in soils and sediments: A comparative urban versus rural study in Canada and UK. Chemosphere, 74(3), 404–411.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.09.051.Google Scholar
  47. Yurdakul, S., Çelik, I., Çelen, M., Öztürk, F., & Cetin, B. (2019). Levels, temporal/spatial variations and sources of PAHs and PCBs in soil of a highly industrialized area. Atmospheric Pollution Research.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apr.2019.02.006.Google Scholar
  48. Zakaria, M. P., Takada, H., Tsutsumi, S., Ohno, K., Yamada, J., Kouno, E., et al. (2002). Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in rivers and estuaries in Malaysia: A widespread input of petrogenic PAHs. Environmental Science and Technology, 36(9), 1907–1918.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es011278+.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Environmental Engineering Department, Civil Engineering FacultyYildiz Technical UniversityDavutpaşa-Esenler, IstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Eurasia Institute of Earth SciencesIstanbul Technical UniversityIstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations