Advertisement

Degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in unsaturated soil and effects on subsequent biodegradation by potassium permanganate

  • Rishikesh Bajagain
  • Prakash Gautam
  • Seung-Woo JeongEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

To date, the oxidation of petroleum hydrocarbons using permanganate has been investigated rarely. Only a few studies on the remediation of unsaturated soil using permanganate can be found in the literature. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first study conducted using permanganate pretreatment to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons in unsaturated soil in combination with subsequent bioaugmentation. The pretreatment of diesel-contaminated unsaturated soil with 0.5-pore-volume (5%) potassium permanganate (PP) by solution pouring and foam spraying (with a surfactant) achieved the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal efficiencies of 37% and 72.1%, respectively. The PP foam, when coupled with bioaugmentation foam, further degraded the TPH to a final concentration of 438 mg/kg (92.1% total reduction). The experiment was conducted without soil mixing or disturbance. The relatively high TPH removal efficiency achieved by the PP–bioaugmentation serial foam application may be attributed to an increase in soil pH caused by the PP and effective infiltration of the remediation agent by foaming. The applied PP foam increased the pH of the acidic soil, thus enhancing microbial activity. The first-order biodegradation rate after PP oxidation was calculated to be 0.068 d−1. Furthermore, 94% of the group of relatively persistent hydrocarbons (C18–C22) was removed by PP–bioaugmentation, as verified by chromatogram peaks. Some physicochemical parameters related to contaminant removal efficiency were also evaluated. The results reveal that PP can degrade soil TPH and significantly enhance the biodegradation rate in unsaturated diesel-contaminated soil when combined with bioaugmentation foam.

Keywords

Diesel-contaminated soil Potassium permanganate Bioaugmentation Microbial population Biodegradation rate 

Notes

Funding

This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (2018R1A2B6006139).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.

Supplementary material

10653_2019_346_MOESM1_ESM.docx (28 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 27 kb)

References

  1. Achugasim, O., Ojinnaka, C. M., & Osuji, L. C. (2014). Potassium permanganate as an oxidant in the remediation of soils polluted by Bonny light crude oil. Sky Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management, 3(2), 4–19.Google Scholar
  2. An, Y., Kim, S. W., Moon, J., Jeong, S.-W., Kim, R.-Y., Yoon, J.-K., et al. (2017). An introductory research for development of soil ecological risk assessment in Korea. Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers, 39, 348–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bajagain, R., Lee, S., & Jeong, S.-W. (2018a). Application of persulfate-oxidation foam spraying as a bioremediation pretreatment of diesel oil-contaminated soil. Chemosphere, 207, 565–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bajagain, R., Park, Y., & Jeong, S.-W. (2018b). Feasibility of oxidation-biodegradation serial foam spraying for total petroleum hydrocarbon removal without soil disturbance. Science of the Total Environment, 626, 1236–1242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Besha, A. T., Bekele, D. N., Naidu, R., & Chadalavada, S. (2018). Recent advances in surfactant-enhanced in-situ chemical oxidation for the remediation of non-aqueous phase liquid contaminated soils and aquifers. Environmental Technology and Innovation, 9, 303–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brown, G. S., Barton, L. L., & Thomson, B. M. (2003). Permanganate oxidation of sorbed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Waste Management, 23(8), 737–740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chang, W., Dyen, M., Spagnuolo, L., Simon, P., Whyte, L., & Ghoshal, S. (2010). Biodegradation of semi- and non-volatile petroleum hydrocarbons in aged, contaminated soils from a sub-Arctic site: Laboratory pilot-scale experiments at site temperatures. Chemosphere, 80, 319–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chang, W., Klemm, S., Beaulieu, C., Hawari, J., Whyte, L., & Ghoshal, S. (2011a). Petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation under seasonal freeze–thaw soil temperature regimes in contaminated soils from a sub-Arctic site. Environmental Science and Technology, 45, 1061–1066.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chang, W., Whyte, L., & Ghoshal, S. (2011b). Comparison of the effects of variable site temperatures and constant incubation temperatures on the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in pilot-scale experiments with field-aged contaminated soils from a cold regions site. Chemosphere, 82(6), 872–878.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. de Souza e Silva, P. T., da Silva, V. L., de Barros Neto, B., & Simonnot, M.-O. (2009). Potassium permanganate oxidation of phenanthrene and pyrene in contaminated soils. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 168(2–3), 1269–1273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dietrich, A. M., Hoehn, R. C., Dufresne, L. C., Buffin, L. W., Rashash, M. C., & Parker, B. C. (1995). Oxidation of odorous and nonodorous algal metabolites by permanganate, chlorine, and chlorine dioxide. Water Science and Technology, 31(11), 223–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hanke, C. G., Johansson, A., Harper, J. B., & Lynden-Bell, R. M. (2003). Why are aromatic compounds more soluble than aliphatic compounds in dimethylimidazolium ionic liquids? A simulation study. Chemical Physics Letters, 374, 85–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hood, E. D., Thomson, N. R., & Farquar, G. J. (1998). In situ oxidation: Remediation of a PCE/TCE residual DNAPL source, Battle, In First international conference on remediation of chlorinated and recalcitrant compounds, Monterey, California, May 1998.Google Scholar
  14. Huling, S. G., & Pivetz, B. E. (2006). Engineering issue paper: In-situ chemical oxidation. EPA 600-R-06-072. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Office of Research and Development. National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH.Google Scholar
  15. ITRC. (2005). Technical and regulatory guidance for in situ chemical oxidation of contaminated soil and groundwater, 2nd edn. The Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council-In Situ Chemical Oxidation Team. https://www.itrcweb.org/GuidanceDocuments/ISCO-2.pdf. Accessed December 14, 2018.
  16. Jeong, S.-W., Jeong, J., & Kim, J. (2015a). Simple surface foam application enhances bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil in cold conditions. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 286, 164–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jeong, J., Kim, H., Lee, S., & Jeong, S.-W. (2015b). Effects of diesel dose and soil texture on variation in the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons in diesel-contaminated soil. Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers, 37, 69–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jousse, F., Atteia, O., Hohener, P., & Cohen, G. (2017). Removal of NAPL from columns by oxidation, sparging, surfactant and thermal treatment. Chemosphere, 188, 182–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kim, I., & Lee, M. (2012). Pilot scale feasibility study for in-situ chemical oxidation using H2O2 solution conjugated with biodegradation to remediate a diesel contaminated site. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 241–242, 173–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Liang, C., Chien, Y.-C., & Lin, Y.-L. (2012). Impacts of ISCO persulfate, peroxide and permanganate oxidants on soils: Soil oxidant demand and soil properties. Soil and Sediment Contamination, 21(6), 701–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Liao, X., Zhao, D., & Yan, X. (2011). Determination of potassium permanganate demand variation with depth for oxidation-remediation of soils from a PAHs-contaminated coking plant. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 193, 164–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER). (2013). Korean soil analysis methods. Incheon: NIER.Google Scholar
  23. Petri, B. G., Thomson, N. R., & Urynowicz, M. A. (2011). Fundamentals of ISCO using permanganate. In R. Siegrist, M. Crimi, & T. Simpkin (Eds.), In situ chemical oxidation for groundwater remediation. SERDP/ESTCP environmental remediation technology (Vol. 3, pp. 89–146). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Phonepaseuth, P., Rakkiatsakul, V., Kachenchart, B., Suttinun, O., & Luepromchai, E. (2019). Phenolic compounds removal by grasses and soil bacteria after land application of treated palm oil mill effluent: A pot study. Environmental Engineering Research, 24, 127–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rybnikova, V., Singhal, N., & Hanna, K. (2017). Remediation of an aged PCP-contaminated soil by chemical oxidation under flow-through conditions. Chemical Engineering Journal, 314, 202–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Singh, N., & Lee, D. G. (2001). Permanganate: A green and versatile industrial oxidant. Organic Process Research & Development, 5(6), 599–603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sogaard, E. G. (2014). Chemistry of advanced environmental purification processes of water: Fundamentals and applications (1st ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  28. Struse, A. M., Siegrist, R. L., Dawson, H. E., & Urynowicz, M. A. (2002). Diffusive transport of permanganate during in situ oxidation. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 128(4), 327–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Suja, F., Rahim, F., Taha, M. R., Hambali, N., Razali, M. R., Khalid, A., et al. (2014). Effects of local microbial bioaugmentation and biostimulation on the bioremediation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in crude oil contaminated soil based on laboratory and field observations. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 90, 115–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Thomson, N. R., Hood, E. D., & Farquhar, G. J. (2007). Permanganate treatment of and emplaced DNAPL source. Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, 27(4), 74–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. UltraClear. (2019). Potassium permanganate. UltraClear by ABI, Inc. http://ultraclear.com/potassiumpermanganate.html. Accessed January 16, 2019.
  32. Waldemer, R. H., & Tratnyek, P. G. (2006). Kinetics of contaminant degradation by permanganate. Environmental Science and Technology, 40(3), 1055–1061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wang, T., Yuan, Z., & Yao, J. (2018). A combined approach to evaluate activity and structure of soil microbial community in long-term heavy metals contaminated soils. Environmental Engineering Research, 23, 62–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Yen, C.-H., Chen, K.-F., Kao, C.-M., Liang, S.-H., & Chen, T.-Y. (2011). Application of persulfate to remediate petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil: Feasibility and comparison with common oxidants. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 186, 2097–2102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental EngineeringKunsan National UniversityKunsanSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations