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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and potentially toxic elements in seafood from the Persian Gulf: presence, trophic transfer, and chronic intake risk assessment

  • Razegheh Akhbarizadeh
  • Farid MooreEmail author
  • Behnam Keshavarzi
Original Paper

Abstract

High bioavailability of man-made pollutants in marine environments raises serious concern regarding the safety of seafood. In the present study, the presence, trophic transfer, and risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in 170 benthic marine organisms (87 prawn; 28 crab; 55 fish) from the Persian Gulf were investigated. Among investigated species, E. coioides displayed the lowest level of metal pollution index (MPI), while P. armatus and P. semisulcatus showed the highest level of MPI and total PAHs, respectively. Principal component biplot exhibited a significant association of PTEs (except Hg) and PAHs in less motile benthic species. The results of trophic transfer investigation revealed that PTEs (except Hg) and PAHs were not biomagnified in the studied organisms through diet. However, Hg biomagnification factors greater than 1 indicated trophic transfer of mercury. In order to gain nutritional benefits of seafood, consumption of two fish/prawn meals/week for adults (except vulnerable groups such as pregnant women) and one fish/prawn meals/week for children is recommended. However, lifelong consumption of crabs (P. armatus) may threaten human health. In addition, the maximum allowable fish consumption rate (CRlim) for studied fish is 120 g fish/day for adults and 30 g fish/day for children. In the case of prawns, the safe dose is 30 and 10 g prawns/day for adults and children, respectively.

Keywords

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) Potentially toxic elements (PTEs) Combined exposure Trophic transfer Seafood safety 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was financially supported by the Iran National Science foundation Grant No. 96006051 to which we are indebted. The authors would also like to extend their gratitude to the medical geology research center of Shiraz University and National Elites Foundation of Islamic Republic of Iran for logistic support.

Supplementary material

10653_2019_343_MOESM1_ESM.docx (29 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 29 kb)

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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Earth Sciences, College of ScienceShiraz UniversityShirazIran

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