Advertisement

Exploring the role of soil geochemistry on Mn and Ca uptake on 75-year-old mine spoils in western Massachusetts, USA

  • Jonah Jordan
  • Richard S. CernakSr.
  • Justin B. RichardsonEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Manganese pollution to plants, soils, and streams from Mn-rich mine spoils is a global and persistent issue. Some former mining sites can be revegetated readily while others struggle to support plants. We explored Mn in plants and soils following 75 years of soil development and reforestation of a pine-northern hardwood forest at the former Betts Mine in western Massachusetts, USA. We studied soils on four Mn-rich mine spoils and at two control sites: an undisturbed location adjacent to the mine and on a non-Mn mineral bearing rock formation to determine if soil conditions have influenced the uptake of Mn and Ca by vegetation. We collected mid-season foliage from five dominant canopy trees and four common understory plants and excavated three soil pits at each site during July 2018. We found that control sites had lower total Mn (980 ± 140 µg g−1) in their soils than on the mine spoil sites (5580 ± 2050 µg g−1). Our soil data indicated that < 1% of total Mn was strong acid extractable at mine spoil soils and control sites. Surprisingly, the canopy trees established on mine spoils at the Betts Mine had equal to or lower foliar Mn concentrations (840 ± 149 µg g−1) and lower Mn/Ca ratios (0.3 ± 0.1 mol mol−1) than at control sites (1667 ± 270 µg g−1; 1.1 ± 0.2 mol mol−1), refuting our hypothesis of mine spoils driving highest Mn uptake. Soil pH and physicochemical properties suggest Mn primarily exists within primary minerals or form insoluble oxides at the mine spoil sites. Our results suggest higher Ca availability and pH in soils likely reduced Mn uptake and promoted reforestation of the mine spoils.

Keywords

Biogeochemistry Phytotoxicity Mn toxicity Mn/Ca ratio 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are indebted to John Fellows for suggesting the study location and Bruce Hooke and Earthdance Creative Living Project, Inc. for generously giving their permission to study the former Betts Mine. We are thankful for field assistance from Rudolph Marek the IV and Brendan Braithwaite with collecting upper canopy branches and soil pit excavation, respectively. In addition, we are thankful for laboratory assistance from Hamid Mashayekhi and Nicholas Martone for ICP-MS analyses and XRF analyses, respectively. This research was supported by funding to Dr. Justin Richardson from the University of Massachusetts Amherst.

References

  1. Adriano, D. C. (2001). Arsenic. In Trace elements in terrestrial environments (pp. 219–261). Springer, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Chen, M., & Ma, L. Q. (1998). Comparison of four USEPA digestion methods for trace metal analysis using certified and Florida soils. Journal of Environmental Quality, 27, 1294–1300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Clair, S. B., & Lynch, J. P. (2005). Element accumulation patterns of deciduous and evergreen tree seedlings on acid soils: Implications for sensitivity to manganese toxicity. Tree Physiology, 25, 85–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Da Silva, J. F., & Williams, R. J. P. (2001). The biological chemistry of the elements: The inorganic chemistry of life. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Grazulis, S., Chateigner, D., Downs, R. T., Yokochi, A. F. T., Quiros, M., Lutterotti, L., et al. (2009). Crystallography open database—An open-access collection of crystal structures. Journal of Applied Crystallography, 42, 726–729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gee, G. W., & Bauder, J. W. (1985). Methods of analysis for soils, plants and water. Univ. of Calif, Div. of Agril. Sci., California, USA, pp. 123–125.Google Scholar
  7. Herndon, E. M., Jin, L., & Brantley, S. L. (2010). Soils reveal widespread manganese enrichment from industrial inputs. Environmental Science and Technology, 45, 241–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Herndon, E., Yarger, B., Frederick, H., & Singer, D. (2019). Iron and manganese biogeochemistry in forested coal mine spoil. Soil Systems, 3(1), 13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hickmott, D. D. (1982). The mineralogy and petrology of the Betts mine area, Plainfield, Massachusetts. Unpublished B.S. thesis (p. 105). Amherst: Amherst College.Google Scholar
  10. Hickmott, D. D., Slack, J. F., & Docka, J. A. (1983). Mineralogy, petrology, and genesis of manganese ores of the Betts Mine, Hampshire County, Massachusetts. In D. F. Sangster (Eds.) Field trip guidebook to stratabound sulphide deposits, Bathurst Area, N.B., Canada and West-Central New England, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  11. Juárez-Santillán, L. F., Lucho-Constantino, C. A., Vázquez-Rodríguez, G. A., Cerón-Ubilla, N. M., & Beltrán-Hernández, R. I. (2010). Manganese accumulation in plants of the mining zone of Hidalgo, Mexico. Bioresource Technology, 101, 5836–5841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kabata-Pendias, A., & Mukherjee, A. B. (2007). Trace elements from soil to human. Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kraepiel, A. M. L., Dere, A. L., Herndon, E. M., & Brantley, S. L. (2015). Natural and anthropogenic processes contributing to metal enrichment in surface soils of central Pennsylvania. Biogeochemistry, 123, 265–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Krauskopf, K. B. (1979). Introduction to geochemistry. International series in the earth and planetary sciences. Tokyo: Mc Grow-Hill.Google Scholar
  15. Kreutzer, K. (1972). The effect of Mn deficiency on colour, pigment and gas exchange of Norway spruce needles. Forstwissenschaftliches Centralblatt, 91(2), 80–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Li, M. S., Luo, Y. P., & Su, Z. Y. (2007). Heavy metal concentrations in soils and plant accumulation in a restored manganese mineland in Guangxi, South China. Environmental Pollution, 147, 168–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Li, M. S., & Yang, S. X. (2008). Heavy metal contamination in soils and phytoaccumulation in a manganese mine wasteland, South China. Air, Soil and Water Research, 1 ASWR-S2041.Google Scholar
  18. Lilliefors, H. W. (1967). On the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test for normality with mean and variance unknown. Journal of the American statistical Association, 62, 399–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Maiz, I., Arambarri, I., Garcia, R., & Millan, E. (2000). Evaluation of heavy metal availability in polluted soils by two sequential extraction procedures using factor analysis. Environmental Pollution, 110, 3–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Millaleo, R., Reyes-Díaz, M., Ivanov, A. G., Mora, M. L., & Alberdi, M. (2010). Manganese as essential and toxic element for plants: Transport, accumulation and resistance mechanisms. Journal of soil science and plant nutrition, 10, 470–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Navrátil, T., Shanley, J. B., Skřivan, P., Krám, P., Mihaljevič, M., & Drahota, P. (2007). Manganese biogeochemistry in a central Czech Republic catchment. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 186(1–4), 149–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pollard, A. J., Stewart, H. L., & Roberson, C. B. (2009). Manganese hyperaccumulation in Phytolacca americana L. from the Southeastern United States. Northeastern Naturalist, 16(sp5), 155–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Quinn, A. W. (1945). Geology of the Plainfield-Hawley area, Massachusetts (with special reference to deposits of manganese and iron minerals): Massachusetts Department of Public Works. United States Geological Survey Cooperative Geology Project, Open-File Report (p. 38).Google Scholar
  24. Richardson, J. B. (2017). Manganese and Mn/Ca ratios in soil and vegetation in forests across the northeastern US: Insights on spatial Mn enrichment. Science of the Total Environment, 581, 612–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Richardson, J. B., & Friedland, A. J. (2016). Influence of coniferous and deciduous vegetation on major and trace metals in forests of northern New England, USA. Plant and Soil, 402, 363–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Richardson, J. B., Friedland, A. J., Engerbretson, T. R., Kaste, J. M., & Jackson, B. P. (2013). Spatial and vertical distribution of mercury in upland forest soils across the northeastern United States. Environmental Pollution, 182, 127–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Robson, A. D., & Loneragan, J. F. (1970). Sensitivity of annual Medicago species to manganese toxicity as affected by calcium and pH. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 21, 223–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Santisteban, J. I., Mediavilla, R., Lopez-Pamo, E., Dabrio, C. J., Zapata, M. B. R., García, M. J. G., et al. (2004). Loss on ignition: A qualitative or quantitative method for organic matter and carbonate mineral content in sediments? Journal of Paleolimnology, 32(3), 287–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Stubblefield, W. A., Brinkman, S. F., Davies, P. H., Garrison, T. D., Hockett, J. R., & McIntyre, M. W. (1997). Effects of water hardness on the toxicity of manganese to developing brown trout (Salmo Trutta). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 16(10), 2082–2089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Teck, R. M., & Hilt, D. E. (1991). Individual-tree diameter growth model for the Northeastern United States. Research paper NE-649. Radnor, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, 11 pg. Ter-Mikaelian M T, Korzukhin MD 1997 Biomass equations for sixty-five North American tree species. Forest Ecology and Management, 97, 1–24.Google Scholar
  31. Veneman, P. L. M., Spokas, L.A., & Lindbo, D. L. (1998). Soil moisture and redoximorphic features: A historical perspective. In M. C. Rabenhorst, J. C. Bell, & P. A. McDaniel (Eds.), Quantifying soil hydromorphology (pp. 1–23). Madison: Soil Science Society of America.Google Scholar
  32. Watmough, S. A., Eimers, M. C., & Dillon, P. J. (2007). Manganese cycling in central Ontario forests: Response to soil acidification. Applied Geochemistry, 22, 1241–1247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Westfall, L. A., Davourie, J., Ali, M., & McGough, D. (2016). Cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment of global manganese alloy production. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 21, 1573–1579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wisłocka, M., Krawczyk, J., Klink, A., & Morrison, L. (2006). Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by selected plant species from uranium mining dumps in the Sudety Mts., Poland. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 15(5), 811–818.Google Scholar
  35. Wong, M. H. (2003). Ecological restoration of mine degraded soils, with emphasis on metal contaminated soils. Chemosphere, 50(6), 775–780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Xue, S. G., Chen, Y. X., Reeves, R. D., Baker, A. J., Lin, Q., & Fernando, D. R. (2004). Manganese uptake and accumulation by the hyperaccumulator plant Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. (Phytolaccaceae). Environmental Pollution, 131(3), 393–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Yang, S., Liang, S., Yi, L., Xu, B., Cao, J., Guo, Y., et al. (2014). Heavy metal accumulation and phytostabilization potential of dominant plant species growing on manganese mine spoils. Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering, 8, 394–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental StudiesCollege of IdahoCaldwellUSA
  2. 2.Department of GeosciencesUniversity of MassachusettsAmherstUSA

Personalised recommendations