Advertisement

Interannual variation in grassland net ecosystem productivity and its coupling relation to climatic factors in China

  • Wei ZhouEmail author
  • Lu Huang
  • Han Yang
  • Weimin Ju
  • Tianxiang Yue
Original Paper

Abstract

Grassland, as an important part of land cover, plays an important role in the global carbon cycle and carbon balance. Net ecosystem productivity (NEP) is a key indicator of the carbon cycle process and an important factor in assessing ecosystem security and maintaining ecosystem balance. In this paper, Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) combining meteorological data, leaf area index, and land cover type data were used to simulate the grassland NEP of China from 1979 to 2008. This model was also used to analyze the responses to changes in climate factors, interannual variation in carbon conversion efficiency, drought stress coefficient, and water use efficiency of grassland in China. Results showed that from 1979 to 2008, the mean annual grassland NEP was 13.6 g C/m2 with weak carbon sinks. The grassland NEP distribution increased from northwest to southeast across China. Regions with NEP of > 0 (C sink) accounted for 73.1% of the total grassland area of China. The total C sequestration reached 26.6 Tg yearly, and grassland NEP was positive from 1979 to 2008. The annual changing characteristics were analyzed. Grassland NEP was positive with carbon sink from June to September, which was negative with carbon source in the remaining months. The carbon conversion efficiency and water use efficiency of the grassland increased significantly within 30 years. NEP showed positive correlation with precipitation (accounting for 74.2% of the total grassland area was positively correlated) but weakly positive correlation with temperature (50.2% of the case). Furthermore, significant positive correlation was found between grassland NEP and precipitation, especially in northeastern and central Inner Mongolia, northern Tianshan of Xinjiang, southwestern Tibet, and southern Qinghai Lake.

Keywords

Grassland carbon source/sink Water use efficiency Carbon conversion efficiency BEPS model Return grazing land to grassland 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the basic science and advanced technology Fund of Chongqing Scientific Council (cstc2016jcyjA1540), the National Youth Science Fund (41501575, 41701227), Fundamental Research Program of Chongqing Municipal Education Commission (KJQN201800702, KJ1705114), and the National Key R&D Program of China (2018YFD1100301). We also thank the China Meteorological data sharing service system for granting us access to climate datasets. Finally, we would like to thank the technical support of College of Surveying and Geography, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, and Joint Innovation Center for Modern Forestry Studies, College of Biology and the Environment, Nanjing Forestry University.

References

  1. Ahcm, S., Stol, W., Dwgvan, K., & Bam, B. (1998). LINGRA, a sink/source model to simulate grassland productivity in Europe. European Journal of Agronomy, 9, 87–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al, J. E., Paasche, Ø. (2007). IPCC. Climate change 2007: The physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (pp. 434–497). Cambridge: Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  3. Arora, V. K. (2003). Simulating energy and carbon fluxes over winter wheat using coupled land surface and terrestrial ecosystem models. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 118, 21–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bonan, G. B. (1995). Land–atmosphere CO2 exchange simulated by a land surface process model coupled to an atmospheric general circulation model. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 100, 2817–2831.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cheng, Q., Mo, X. G., Wang, Y. F., & Lin, Z. H. (2010). Simulation of the carbon cycle in the meadow steppe dominated by Leymus Chinensis. Natural Resources Journal, 25, 60–70.Google Scholar
  6. Christensen, L., Coughenour, M. B., Ellis, J. E., & Chen, Z. Z. (2004). Vulnerability of the Asian typical steppe to grazing and climate change. Climatic Change, 63, 351–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Conant, R. T., Paustian, K., & Elliott, E. T. (2001). Grassland management and conversion into grassland: effects on soil carbon. Ecological Applications, 11, 343–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cui, H., & Zhang, Y. H. (2016). Diurnal and seasonal dynamic variation of soil respiration and its influencing factors of different fenced enclosure years in desert steppe. Environmental Science, 37, 1507–1515.Google Scholar
  9. Diemer, M., & Körner, C. (1998). Transient Enhancement of carbon uptake in an Alpine grassland ecosystem under elevated CO2. Arctic and Alpine Research, 30, 381–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Eswaran, H., Berg, E. V. D., & Reich, P. (1993). Organic carbon in soils of the world. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 90, 269–273.Google Scholar
  11. Fang, J. Y., Piao, S. L., Tang, Z. Y., Peng, C. H., & Ji, W. (2001). Interannual variability in net primary production and precipitation science. Science, 293, 1723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fang, J., Yang, Y., Ma, W., Mohammat, A., & Shen, H. (2010). Ecosystem carbon stocks and their changes in China’s grasslands. Science China Life Sciences, 53, 757–765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Geng, Y., Dong, Y., & Qi, Y. (2004). Review about the carbon cycle researches in grassland ecosystem. Progress in Geography, 23, 74–81.Google Scholar
  14. GLC. (2003). Global landcover classification for the year 2000. http://www-gem.jrc.it/glc2000/.
  15. Hansen, J., Sato, M., Ruedy, R., Lo, K., Lea, D. W., & Medinaelizade, M. (2006). Global temperature change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103, 14288–14293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hanson, P. J., Edwards, N. T., Garten, C. T., & Andrews, J. A. (2000). Separating root and soil microbial contributions to soil respiration: A review of methods and observations. Biogeochemistry, 48, 115–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hao, Y. B., Wang, Y. F., & Cui, X. Y. (2010). Drought stress reduces the carbon accumulation of the Leymus chinensis steppe in inner Mongolia, China. Journal of Plant Ecology, 34, 898–906.Google Scholar
  18. Harte, J., Torn, M. S., Chang, F. R., Feifarek, B., Kinzig, A. P., Shaw, R., et al. (1995). Global warming and soil microclimate: Results from a meadow-warming experiment. Ecological Applications, 5, 132–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jda, M., Glw, P., & Romerocalcerrada, R. (2007). Regression techniques for examining land use/cover change: A case study of a Mediterranean landscape. Ecosystems, 10, 562–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jiang, L., Guo, R., Zhu, T., Niu, X., Guo, J., & Sun, W. (2012). Water- and plant-mediated responses of ecosystem carbon fluxes to warming and nitrogen addition on the Songnen grassland in northeast China. PLoS ONE, 7, e45205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ju, W., Chen, J. M., Black, T. A., Barr, A. G., Liu, J., & Chen, B. (2006). Modelling multi-year coupled carbon and water fluxes in a boreal aspen forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 140, 136–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kang, X., Hao, Y., Cui, X., Chen, H., Li, C., Rui, Y., et al. (2013). Effects of grazing on CO2 balance in a semiarid steppe: field observations and modeling. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 13, 1012–1023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Knapp, A. K., Fay, P. A., Blair, J. M., Collins, S. L., Smith, M. D., Carlisle, J. D., et al. (2002). Rainfall variability, carbon cycling, and plant species diversity in a Mesic grassland. Science, 298, 2202–2205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kong, Y. H., Yao, F. J., Peng, S., Liu, Y., Dong, W. X., & Bai, L. (2010). Study on the characteristics soil carbon accumulation and conversion of carbon sink and source of grassland under different land use types. Pratacultural Science, 27(4), 40–45.Google Scholar
  25. Li, S. G., Asanuma, J., Eugster, W., Kotani, A., Liu, J. J., Urano, T., et al. (2005). Net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange over grazed steppe in central Mongolia. Global Change Biology, 11, 1941–1955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Li, D., Cao, G. M., Huang, Y., Jin, D. Y., & Ming, Z. (2010). Carbon budget of alpine shrub meadow ecosystem in Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. Acta Prataculturae Sinica, 27, 37–41.Google Scholar
  27. Li, G. Y., Han, H. Y., Du, Y., Hui, D. F., Xia, J. Y., Niu, S. L., et al. (2017). Effects of warming and increased precipitation on net ecosystem productivity: A long-term manipulative experiment in a semiarid grassland. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 232, 359–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Li, L. H., Liu, X. H., & Zuo-zhong, Chen. (1998). Study on the carbon cycle of Leymus Chinensis stppe in the Xilin River basin. Acta Phytoecologica Sinica, 40, 955–961.Google Scholar
  29. Li, L., Vuichard, N., Viovy, N., & Ciais, P. (2011). Importance of crop varieties and management practices: evaluation of a process-based model for simulating CO2 and H2O fluxes at five European maize (Zea mays L.) sites. Biogeosciences, 8, 1721–1736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Li, Y. Q., Zhao, H. L., Zhao, X. Y., Zhang, T. H., & Chen, Y. P. (2006). Soil respiration, carbon balance and carbon storage of sandy grassland under post-grazing natural restoration. Acta Prataculturae Sinica, 15, 25–31.Google Scholar
  31. Liang, Y., Ganjurjav, Zhang W. N., Gao, Q. Z., Danjiu, L. B., Xirao, Z. M., & Baima, Y. Z. (2014). A review on effect of climate change on grassland ecosystem in China. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 16, 1–8.Google Scholar
  32. Lieth, H. (1973). Primary production: Terrestrial ecosystems. Human Ecology, 1, 303–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Liu, J., Chen, J. M., Cihlar, J., & Park, W. M. (1997). A process-based boreal ecosystem productivity simulator using remote sensing inputs. Remote sensing of environment, 62, 158–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Liu, R., Li, Y., & Wang, Q. X. (2012). Variations in water and CO2 fluxes over a saline desert in western China. Hydrological Processes, 26, 513–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Liu, Y., Liu, R., & Chen, J. M. (2015). Retrospective retrieval of long-term consistent global leaf area index (1981–2011) from combined AVHRR and MODIS data. Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences, 117, 4003.Google Scholar
  36. Luo, Y., Sherry, R., Zhou, X., & Wan, S. (2007). Terrestrial carbon-cycle feedback to climate warming: Experimental evidence on plant regulation and impacts of biofuel feedstock harvest. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics, 38, 683–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Matsushita, B., & Tamura, M. (2002). Integrating remotely sensed data with an ecosystem model to estimate net primary productivity in East Asia. Remote Sensing of Environment, 81, 58–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Niu, S., Wu, M., Han, Y., Xia, J., Li, L., & Wan, S. (2008). Water-mediated responses of ecosystem carbon fluxes to climatic change in a temperate steppe. New Phytologist, 177, 209–219.Google Scholar
  39. Oberbauer, S. F., Gillespie, C. T., Cheng, W., Sala, A., Gebauer, R., & Tenhunen, J. D. (1996). Diurnal and seasonal patterns of ecosystem CO2 efflux from upland tundra in the foothills of the Brooks Range, Alaska, U.S.A. Arctic and Alpine Research, 28, 328–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Potts, D., Huxman, T. B., Weltzin, J., & Williams, D. (2006). Resilience and resistance of ecosystem functional response to a precipitation pulse in a semi-arid grassland. Journal of Ecology, 94, 23–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Raich, J. W., Tufekcioglu, A., Rustad, L. E., Huntingdon, T. G., & Boone, R. D. (2000). Vegetation and soil respiration: Correlations and controls. Biogeochemistry, 48, 71–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rigge, M., Wylie, B., Zhang, L., & Boyte, S. P. (2013). Influence of management and precipitation on carbon fluxes in great plains grasslands. Ecological Indicators, 34, 590–599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Running, S. W., & Coughlan, J. C. (1988). A general model of forest ecosystem processes for regional applications I. Hydrologic balance, canopy gas exchange and primary production processes. Ecological Modelling, 42, 125–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Shi, Y., Shen, Y., Kang, E., Li, D., Ding, Y., Zhang, G., et al. (2007). Recent and future climate change in Northwest China. Climatic Change, 80, 379–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sui, X., & Zhou, G. (2013). Carbon dynamics of temperate grassland ecosystems in China from 1951 to 2007: An analysis with a process-based biogeochemistry model. Environmental Earth Sciences, 68, 521–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wan, S., Luo, Y., & Wallace, L. L. (2002). Changes in microclimate induced by experimental warming and clipping in tallgrass prairie. Global Change Biology, 8, 754–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wang, C. (2006). Simulation on the carbon and water vapor flux of the typical ecosystem by the BIOME-BGC model. Nanjing: Nanjing Agricultural University.Google Scholar
  48. Wang, S., Wilkes, A., Zhang, Z., Chang, X., Lang, R., Wang, Y., et al. (2011). Management and land use change effects on soil carbon in northern China’s grasslands: A synthesis. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 142, 329–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Weltzin, J. F., Loik, M. E., Schwinning, S., Williams, D. G., Fay, P. A., Haddad, B. M., et al. (2003). Assessing the response of terrestrial ecosystems to potential changes in precipitation. BioScience, 53, 941–952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Zhang, N., Zhao, Y. S., & Yu, G. R. (2009). Simulated annual carbon fluxes of grassland ecosystems in extremely arid conditions. Ecological Research, 24, 185–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Zhang, X. Z., Shi, P. L., Liu, Y. F., & Ouyang, H. (2004). CO2 Emission and carbon balance of soil in Alpine steppe ecosystem in Tibetan Plateau. Science in China, 34(S2), 193–199.Google Scholar
  52. Zhou, W., Gang, C. C., Chen, Y. Z., Mu, S. J., Sun, Z. G., & Li, J. L. (2014). Grassland coverage inter-annual variation and its coupling relation with hydrothermal factors in China during 1982–2010. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 24, 593–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Zhou, T., Shi, P. J., Sun, R., & Wang, S. Q. (2004). The impacts of climate change on net ecosystem production in China. Acta Geographica Sinica, 59, 357–365.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wei Zhou
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Lu Huang
    • 1
  • Han Yang
    • 1
  • Weimin Ju
    • 3
  • Tianxiang Yue
    • 2
  1. 1.College of Architecture and Urban PlanningChongqing Jiaotong UniversityChongqingChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources ResearchChinese Academy SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.International Institute of Earth System ScienceNanjing UniversityNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations