Environmental Geochemistry and Health

, Volume 41, Issue 3, pp 1235–1250 | Cite as

Hydrochemical assessment of surface and ground waters used for drinking and irrigation in Kardeh Dam Basin (NE Iran)

  • Hoda Mousazadeh
  • Mohamad Hosein Mahmudy-GharaieEmail author
  • Abolfazl Mosaedi
  • Reza Moussavi Harami
Original Paper


Water quality for drinking and irrigation usage was examined in Kardeh dam basin in NE Iran. Thirty-two surface and groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for major ions of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3, CO32−, SO42− and Cl by using standard analytical methods of titration and atomic absorption spectrophotometry at geochemistry laboratory of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Dominant cation in most of the water samples are Ca2+ and Mg2+, and dominant anion is HCO3. Water quality index (WQI) was calculated based on physicochemical parameters such as pH, EC and major ions. The WQI values were less than 100 (maximum permissible value) for all samples and suitable for drinking usage; nevertheless, water quality decreased from northwest toward the southeast of studied area. Also, based on modified NSFWQI, the water resources were classified into average and good categories, which are suitable for irrigation uses. More than 40% of the samples are not suitable for irrigation uses based on magnesium hazard values. Carbonate rocks have the main effect on hydrogeochemical facies and the water quality in studied area. According to drinking and irrigation indices, water quality is reducing from upstream toward downstream to the southeast of the basin.


Water quality index Modified NSFWQI Hydrogeochemistry Kardeh dam 



This study has been supported by Ferdowsi University of Mashhad-international Campus. The study was conducted as PhD thesis (3/41688) contribution of the first author (H.M). Our sincere thanks go to Ms. Masumeh Taheri (Ferdowsi University of Mashhad) for her generous and valuable scientific supports.


  1. Aghanabati, A. (2004). Geology of Iran. Ministry of industry and mines. Geological survey of Iran, Vol. 582.Google Scholar
  2. Bhat, N. A., Jeelani, G., & Bhat, M. Y. (2014). Hydrogeochemical assessment of groundwater in karst environments, Bringi watershed, Kashmir Himalayas, India. Current Science, 106(7), 1000–1007.Google Scholar
  3. Brown, R. M., McClelland, N. I., Deininger, R. A., & Tozer, R. G. (1970). A water quality index—do we dare. Water Sewage Works, 117, 339–343.Google Scholar
  4. Cidu, R., Frau, F., & Tore, P. (2011) Drinking water quality: Comparing inorganic components in bottled water and Italian tap water. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 24, 2, 184–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Eaton, F. M. (1950). Significance of carbonate in irrigation water. Soil Science, 69(2), 123–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Edmunds, W. M., Bath, A. H., & Miles, D. L. (1982). Hydrochemical evolution of the East Midlands Triassic sandstone aquifer, England. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 46, 2069–2081.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. El-Bouraie, M. M., El-Barbary, A. A., Yehia, M. M., & Motawea, E. A. (2010). Heavy metal concentrations in surface river water and bed sediments at Nile Delta in Egypt. Suo, 61(1), 1–12.Google Scholar
  8. Esmaeili-Vardanjani, M., Rasa, I., Amiri, V., Yazdi, M., & Pazand, K. (2015). Evaluation ofgroundwater quality and assessment of scaling potential and corrosiveness of watersamples in Kadkan aquifer, Khorasan-e-Razavi Province, Iran. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187, 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. FAO. (2011). The state of the world’s h land and water resources for food and agriculture (SOLAW)—Managing systems at risk. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome and Earthscan, London.Google Scholar
  10. Garrels, R. M. (1976). A survey of low temperature water mineral relations. In Interpretation of environmental isotope and hydrogeochemical data in groundwater hydrology, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, pp. 65–84.Google Scholar
  11. Gibbs, R. J. (1970). Mechanism controlling world water chemistry. Science, 170, 1088–1090.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Goher, M. E., Farhat, H. I., Abdo, M. H., & Salem, S. G. (2014). Metal pollution assessment in the surface sediment of Lake Nasser, Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 40, 213–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gupta, S. K., & Gupta, I. C. (1987). Management of saline soils and water (p. 399). New Delhi: Oxford and IBM Publ. Co.Google Scholar
  14. Halim, M. A., Majumder, R. K., Nessa, S. A., Hiroshiro, Y., Sasaki, K., Saha, B. B., et al. (2010). Evaluation of processes controlling the geochemical constituents in deep groundwater in Bangladesh: Spatial variability on arsenic and boron enrichment. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 180, 50–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Handa, B. K. (1969). Description and classification of media for hydro-geochemical investigations. In Symposium on ground water studies in arid and semiarid regions, Roorkee.Google Scholar
  16. Hem, J. D. (1995). Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural water. USGS, Water Supply Paper, 264, 117–120.Google Scholar
  17. Heydarizad, M. (2018). Hydrochemical assessment and quality classification of water in Torogh and Kardeh Dam reservoirs, North-East Iran. International Journal of Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences. Scholar
  18. Hounslow, A. W. (1995). Water quality data: Analysis and interpretation (pp. 47–126). Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  19. Javed, S. A., & Ullah, S. (2017). Spatial assessment of water quality parameters in Jhelum city (Pakistan). Environmental Monitoring Assessment, 189(119), 1–16.Google Scholar
  20. Jerome, C., & Pius, A. (2010). Evaluation of Water Quality Index and its impact on the quality of life in an industrial area in Banglalore, South India. American Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 1(3), 595–603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kalra, Y. P., & Maynard, D. G. (1991). Methods manual for forest soil and plant analysis. Information report NOR-X-319, Northwest Region, Northern Forestry Centre, Forestry Canada.Google Scholar
  22. Karanth, K. R. (1989). Hydrogeology (pp. 1–455). New Delhi: Tata Mc Graw Hill Publ. Co., Ltd.Google Scholar
  23. Karthika, I. N., & Dheenadayalan, M. S. (2015). Study of ground water quality at selected locations in Dindigul district, India. Journal of Advanced Chemical Sciences, 1(2), 67–69.Google Scholar
  24. Ketata-Rokbani, M., Gueddari, M., & Bouhlila, R. (2011). Use of geographical information system and water Quality Index to Assess Groundwater Quality in EL Khir at Deep Aquifer (Enfidha, Tunisian Sahel). Iranica Journal of Energy & Environment, 2(2), 133–144.Google Scholar
  25. Khalaf, R. M., & Hassan, W. H. (2013). Evaluation of irrigation Water Quality Index (IWQI) for Al-Dammam confined aquifer in the West and Southwest of Karbala city, Iraq. International Journal of Civil Engineering (IJCE), 2(3), 21–34.Google Scholar
  26. Krishna, A. K., & Satyanarayana Kelly, W. P. (1963). Use of saline irrigation water. Soil Science, 95(4), 355–391.Google Scholar
  27. Kumar, P., Masago, Y., KumarMishra, B., & Fukushi, K. (2018). Evaluating future stress due to combined effect of climate change and rapid urbanization for Pasig-Marikina River, Manila. Groundwater for Sustainable Development, 6, 227–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. McMurry, J., & Fay, R. C. (2004). Hydrogen, oxygen and water. In K. P. Hamann (Ed.), Chemistry (4th ed., pp. 575–599). New Jersey: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  29. Meireles, A., Anderade, E., Chaves, L. C., Frischkorn, H., & Crisostomo, L. A. (2010). A new proposal of the classification of irrigation water. Revista Ciencia Agronomica, 4(3), 349–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mills, B. (2003). Interpreting water analysis for crop and pasture. File no. FS0334, DPI’s Agency for Food and Fiber Sciences, Toowoomba.Google Scholar
  31. Milovanovic, M. (2007). Water quality assessment and determination of pollution sources along the Axios/Vardar River, Southeastern Europe. Desalination, 213(1), 159–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mir, R., & Jeelani, G. (2015). Hydrogeochemical assessment of River Jhelum and its tributaries for domestic and irrigation purposes, Kashmir valley, India. Current Science, 109(2), 311–322.Google Scholar
  33. Misaghi, F., Delgosha, F., Razzaghmanesh, M., & Myers, B. (2017). Introducing a water quality index for assessing water for irrigation purposes: A case study of the Ghezel Ozan River. Science of the Total Environment, 589, 107–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mohan, R., Singh, A. K., Tripathi, J. K., & Choudhry, G. C. (2000). Hydrochemistry and quality assessment of ground water in Naini industrial area Allahabad District, Uttar Pradesh. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 55, 77–89.Google Scholar
  35. Nabavieh, S. M. (1998). Geological map of Kalat-E-Naderi, 1:100000 Geological Survey of Iran, No. 7963.Google Scholar
  36. Negrel, P., Pauwels, H., Dewndel, B., Gandolfi, J. M., Mascre, C., & Ahmed, S. (2011). Understanding groundwater systems and their functioning through the study of stable water isotopes in a hard-rock aquifer (Maheshwaram watershed, India). Journal of Hydrology, 397, 55–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Paliwal, K. V. (1972). Irrigation with saline water. Monogram no. 2, new series, IARI, New Delhi, p. 198.Google Scholar
  38. Pazand, K., & Javanshir, A. R. (2014). Geochemistry and water quality assessment ofgroundwater around Mohammad Abad Area, Bam District, SE Iran. Water Quality, Exposure and Health, 6, 225–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pazand, K., Khosravi, D., Ghaderi, M. R., & Rezvanianzadeh, M. R. (2018). Identification of the hydrogeochemical processes and assessment of groundwater in a semi-arid region using major ion chemistry: A case study of Ardestan basin in Central Iran. Groundwater for Sustainable Development, 6, 245–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Piper, A. M. (1994). A geographic procedure in the geochemical interpretation of water analysis. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 25, 914–928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ragunath, H. M. (1987). Groundwater (p. 563). New Delhi: Wiley Eastern.Google Scholar
  42. Richard, L. A. (1954). Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. In Agric handbook, Vol 60, USDA, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  43. Sajjad, H., Rashid, S. M., Prasad, S., & Rahisuddin. (2013). Assessment of groundwater quality in Meerut city, India. International Journal of Environmental Protection, 3(2), 20–26.Google Scholar
  44. Sarkar, D., Datta, R., & Hannigan, R. (2007). Concepts and applications in environmental geochemistry, Vol. 5, 1st edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 229–243. eBook ISBN: 9780080549736.Google Scholar
  45. Schoeller, H. (1967). Qualitative evaluation of groundwater resources (In methods and techniques of groundwater investigation and development. Water Resource Series, 33, 44–52.Google Scholar
  46. Schoeller, H. (1977). Geochemistry of groundwater. In Groundwater studies—An international guide for research and practice, Chapter 15, UNESCO, Paris, pp. 1–18.Google Scholar
  47. Şener, S., Şener, E., & Davraz, A. (2017). Evaluation of water quality using water quality index (WQI) method and GIS in Aksu River (SW-Turkey). Science of the Total Environment, 584–585, 131–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sulehria, A. Q. K., Mustafa, Y. S., Kanwal, B., & Nazish, A. (2013). Assessment of drinking water quality in Islampura, Distt.Lahore (local report). Science International, 25(2), 359–361.Google Scholar
  49. Szabolcs, I., & Darab, C. (1964). The influence of irrigation water of high sodium carbonate content of soils. In Proceedings of 8th international congress of ISSS, transaction II, pp. 803–812.Google Scholar
  50. Taheri, M., Mahmudy Gharaie, M. H., Mehrzad, J., Afshari, R., & Datta, S. (2017). Hydrogeochemical and isotopic evaluation of arsenic contaminated waters in an argillic alteration zone. Journal of Geochemical Explorations, 175, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Taheri, M., Mehrzad, J., Mahmudy Gharaie, M. H., Afshari, R., Dadsetan, A., & Hami, S. (2016). High soil and groundwater arsenic levels induce high body arsenic loads, health risk and potential anemia for inhabitants of northeastern Iran. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 38, 469–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Tajabadi, M., Zare, M., & Chitsazan, M. (2018). The hydrogeochemical and isotopic investigations of the two-layered Shiraz aquifer in the northwest of Maharlou saline lake, south of Iran. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 139, 241–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tiri, A., Belkhiri, L., & Mouni, L. (2018). Evaluation of surface water quality for drinking purposes using fuzzy inference system. Groundwater for Sustainable Development, 6, 235–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Tziritis, E., Skordas, K., & Kelepertsis, A. (2016). The use of hydrogeochemical analyses and multivariate statistics for the characterization of groundwater resources in a complex aquifer system. A case study in Amyros River basin, Thessaly, central Greece. Environmental Earth Sciences, 75(4), 339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wanda, E. M. M., Gulula, L. C., & Phiri, A. (2013). Hydrochemical assessment of groundwater used for irrigation in Rumphi and Karonga districts, Northern Malawi. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 66, 51–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wilcox, L. V. (1948). The quality water for irrigation use. US Department Agricultural Bulletin, Vol. 40.Google Scholar
  57. Wilcox, L. V. (1955). Classification and use of irrigation water. Agriculture circular 969. USDA, Washington, DC, Vol. 19.Google Scholar
  58. World Health Organization. (2011). Guidelines for drinking water quality, recommendations, Vol. 1. 3rd edn. WHO, Geneva.Google Scholar
  59. World Health Organization. (2017). Guidelines for drinking-water quality.Google Scholar
  60. Yang, Q., Li, Z., Ma, H., Wang, L., & Martin, J. D. (2016). Identification of the hydrogeochemical processes and assessment of groundwater quality using classic integrated geochemical methods in the Southeastern part of Ordos’s basin, China. Environmental Pollution. Scholar
  61. Zouahri, A., Dakak, H., Douaik, A., Khadir, M. E., & Moussadek, R. (2015). Evaluation of groundwater suitability for irrigation in the Skhirat region, Northwest of Morocco. Environmental Monitoring Assessment, 187, 4184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hoda Mousazadeh
    • 1
  • Mohamad Hosein Mahmudy-Gharaie
    • 2
    Email author
  • Abolfazl Mosaedi
    • 3
  • Reza Moussavi Harami
    • 2
  1. 1.International CampusFerdowsi University of MashhadMashhadIran
  2. 2.Department of Geology, Faculty of ScienceFerdowsi University of MashhadMashhadIran
  3. 3.Department of Water Sciences and Engineering, Faculty of AgricultureFerdowsi University of MashhadMashhadIran

Personalised recommendations