PM10 and surface dust source characterization in Baguio City Central Business District (CBD), Philippines

  • Hilda R. Hagad
  • Mylene G. CayetanoEmail author
Original Paper


This study measured both PM10 and surface dust concentrations at roadside in the Central Business District of Baguio City. A total of 66 PM10 filters and 25 surface dust samples were analyzed for 14 metals (Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Cd and Pb) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer ICP-MS to characterize sources of airborne particulate matter (APM). Calculation of enrichment factors indicated elements Zn, Cd, Pb and As to be enriched in both PM10 and surface dust samples. The compositional signature of local surface dust was found to be strongly correlated with that of PM10 particles. Enrichment Factor, Conditional Probability Function (CPF), Correlation Analysis and Principal component analysis were applied to determine sources affecting the Baguio CBD area, and results indicate three APM contributing sources (1) soil sources and (2) soil–road dust resuspension and vehicular emissions (3) vehicular emissions. The NE and SW wind sectors were dominant for most of the identified sources.


PM10 Enrichment factor Baguio CBD Soil dust Coarse particle Airborne particulate matter 



This study was supported by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning in South Korea through the International Environmental Research Center and the UNU and GIST Joint Programme on Science and Technology for Sustainability in 2014–2016. This study was also supported by the “Climate Technology Development and Application: Research Project (K07741) through a Grant provided by GIST in 2017. We are also in deep gratitude to Dr. Rheo Lamorena-Lim, to the City of Baguio City, through the office of Mayor Mauricio Domogan, The City Environment Parks and Management Office lead by Ms. Colleen Lacsamana and her staff, Ms. Vikki Ferrer, Engr. Moises Lozano and Engr. Sofronio Pascua.

Supplementary material

10653_2018_208_MOESM1_ESM.docx (4 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 4100 kb)


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Environmental Science and MeteorologyUniversity of the Philippines DilimanQuezon CityPhilippines
  2. 2.University of Santo TomasMetro ManilaPhilippines

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