The association between heavy metal soil pollution and stomach cancer: a case study in Hangzhou City, China
- 213 Downloads
Stomach cancer (SC) is a severe health burden, with nearly half of the world’s cases found in China. Noticeably, the emissions of heavy metals into the environment have increased alongside rapid urbanization and industrialization in China. However, as regards carcinogenic associations, the relationship between heavy metals and SC is yet unclear. Based on 9378 newly diagnosed SC cases in Hangzhou City from 2009 to 2012, this work is concerned with the quantitative characterization of the spatial distribution pattern of SC incidence and its geographical association with soil heavy metals by means of a novel geographical model. The results show that (a) Cd is one of the severe soil pollutants in Hangzhou; (b) higher SC incidence clusters are in central Hangzhou, whereas lower clusters are found in the northeast and southwest with a male to female incidence ratio about 2.2:1; (c) although when considered separately, the heavy metals in this work do not have a considerable impact on the distribution of SC incidence in Hangzhou City, nevertheless, the joint effects of multiple heavy metals have significant impacts on SC risk. The present work calls for a rigorous quantitative assessment of the integrated heavy metal soil pollution and its effects on SC incidence.
KeywordsStomach cancer Heavy metal Spatial distribution GeoDetector
This work was Funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. NSFC 41671399).
- Chen, W., Zheng, R., Baade, P. D., Zhang, S., Zeng, H., Bray, F., et al. (2016). Cancer statistics in China, 2015. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 66(2), 115–132.Google Scholar
- Chen, W., Zheng, R., Zhang, S., Zeng, H., Zou, X., & He, J. (2017). Report of cancer incidence and mortality in China 2013. China Cancer, 26(1), 1–7.Google Scholar
- Christakos, G. (1992). Random field models in earth sciences. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Christakos, G. (2017). Spatiotemporal random fields: Theory and applications. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
- Estève, J., Benhamou, E., & Raymond, L. (1994). Statistical methods in cancer research volume IV: Descriptive epidemiology. Volume Chapter 2. Lyon: IARC Scientific Publication.Google Scholar
- Hao, J., & Chen, W. Q. (2012). Chinese Cancer registry annual report. Beijing: Military Medical Science Press.Google Scholar
- Hu, B., Jia, X., Hu, J., Xu, D., Xia, F., & Li, Y. (2017). Assessment of heavy metal pollution and health risks in the soil–plant–human system in the Yangtze river delta, china. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(9), 1–18.Google Scholar
- Jan, F. A., Ishaq, M., Khan, S., Ihsanullah, I., Ahmad, I., & Shakirullah, M. (2010). A comparative study of human health risks via consumption of food crops grown on wastewater irrigated soil (Peshawar) and relatively clean water irrigated soil (lower Dir). Journal of Hazardous Materials, 179, 612–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- López-Abente, G., Locutura-Rupérez, J., Fernández-Navarro, P., Martín-Méndez, I., Bel-Lan, A., & Núñez, O. (2018). Compositional analysis of topsoil metals and its associations with cancer mortality using spatial misaligned data. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 40(1), 283–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Malekzadeh, R., Derakhshan, M. H., & Malekzadeh, Z. (2009). Gastric cancer in Iran: Epidemiology and risk factors. Archives of Iranian Medicine, 12(6), 576–583.Google Scholar
- MEP, M. L. R. (2014). National soil pollution survey bulletin. Ministry of Environmental Protection and Ministry of Land and Resources, Beijing. http://www.zhb.gov.cn/gkml/hbb/qt/201404/W020140417558995804588.pdf. Accessed 17 Apr 2014.
- Wang, J. F., Li, X. H., Christakos, G., Liao, Y. L., Zhang, T., Gu, X., et al. (2010). Geographical detectors-based health risk assessment and its application in the neural tube defects study of the Heshun Region, China. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 24, 107–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yuan, W., Yang, N., & Li, X. (2016). Advances in understanding how heavy metal pollution triggers gastric cancer. BioMed Research International, 2016(1), 7825432.Google Scholar
- Zhao, Q., Wang, Y., Cao, Y., Chen, A., Ren, M., Ge, Y., et al. (2014). Potential health risks of heavy metals in cultivated topsoil and grain, including correlations with human primary liver, lung and gastric cancer, in Anhui province, Eastern China. Science of the Total Environment, 470–471(2), 340–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar