Environmental Geochemistry and Health

, Volume 40, Issue 6, pp 2465–2480 | Cite as

Organochlorines in urban soils from Central India: probabilistic health hazard and risk implications to human population

  • Bhupander KumarEmail author
  • Meenu Mishra
  • V. K. Verma
  • Premanjali Rai
  • Sanjay Kumar
Original Paper


This study presents distribution of organochlorines (OCs) including HCH, DDT and PCBs in urban soils, and their environmental and human health risk. Forty-eight soil samples were extracted using ultrasonication, cleaned with modified silica gel chromatography and analyzed by GC-ECD. The observed concentrations of ∑HCH, ∑DDT and ∑PCBs in soils ranged between < 0.01–2.54, 1.30–27.41 and < 0.01–62.8 µg kg−1, respectively, which were lower than the recommended soil quality guidelines. Human health risk was estimated following recommended guidelines. Lifetime average daily dose (LADD), non-cancer risk or hazard quotient (HQ) and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) for humans due to individual and total OCs were estimated and presented. Estimated LADD were lower than acceptable daily intake and reference dose. Human health risk estimates were lower than safe limit of non-cancer risk (HQ < 1.0) and the acceptable distribution range of ILCR (10−6–10−4). Therefore, this study concluded that present levels of OCs (HCH, DDT and PCBs) in studied soils were low, and subsequently posed low health risk to human population in the study area.


Organochlorines HCH DDT PCBs Health hazard Risk Urban soils India 



The authors are grateful to competent authorities of Central Pollution Control Board for providing the necessary facilities to conduct study. The views expressed in this paper are those of authors and do not necessarily reflect the organizations. The authors are also thankful to anonymous reviewers for their critical review and comments for improvisation of the manuscript.

Supplementary material

10653_2018_112_MOESM1_ESM.doc (170 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 169 kb)


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bhupander Kumar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Meenu Mishra
    • 1
  • V. K. Verma
    • 1
  • Premanjali Rai
    • 1
  • Sanjay Kumar
    • 1
  1. 1.Central Pollution Control BoardNew DelhiIndia

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