Turbulence characteristics of 45° inclined dense jets

  • Mingtao Jiang
  • Adrian Wing-Keung LawEmail author
  • Adrian C. H. Lai
Original Article


In the present study, we performed an extensive laboratory investigation to quantify the turbulence characteristics of 45° inclined dense jets using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) over a wide range of Densimetric Froude Number. The objective was to provide benchmark data to guide high resolution turbulence numerical simulations for dense jets in the future. The PIV measurements were sampled at a relatively high frequency of 50 Hz, which enabled the analysis of second order turbulence statistics as well as the turbulence kinetic energy spectrum (including the inertial subrange) along the curvilinear jet trajectory, which has hitherto not been reported. The measurements showed that the spectral profile was flat near the discharge port with the potential core, since the Kelvin–Helmholtz shear-induced turbulence at the jet boundaries had not fully penetrated to the core. The spectral profile then evolved along the trajectory with progressive steepening towards the higher frequencies, and a fully-developed profile appeared beyond the terminal rise with a clearly identifiable inertial subrange for the energy cascade. In parallel, we also performed numerical simulations using the Large Eddy Simulations (LES) approach with the Dynamic Smagorinsky sub-grid model for the specific discharge conditions as in the experiments. The LES approach followed that of Zhang et al. (Environ Fluid Mech 16(1):101–121, 2016, J Hydro Environ Res 15:54–66, 2017) using GCI as the grid convergence criteria. The comparison showed that the time-averaged first order mixing characteristics of the inclined dense jet can be simulated reasonably well comparing to the experimental data. In terms of the turbulence kinetic energy spectrum, the low frequencies of the production range were also well captured by the simulations. However, the simulated transitional spectra towards the inertial subrange decayed substantially faster than the experiments. The discrepancy was attributed to the fact that the grid resolution was not sufficiently fine in the simulations (which were constrained by the available computational resources and time), such that stratified effects remained present inside the sub-grids producing additional turbulence energy that were not represented by the Dynamic Smagorinsky model. Thus, the numerical investigation showed that further improvement in sub-grid models that can incorporate the stratified effects would be desirable in the future for engineering simulations.


Inclined dense jet PIV Large Eddy Simulations (LES) Turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) Turbulence kinetic energy spectrum 

List of symbols


Velocity 1/e width


Initial concentration


Centerline concentration


Smagorinsky constant


Nozzle diameter


Densimetric Froude number


Gravitational acceleration


Reduced gravitational acceleration


Port height


Distance from the port to the water surface


Distance from the port to the back and front vertical boundary


Jet characteristic length scale


Resolved turbulent stress


Anisotropic part of the turbulent stress




SGS scalar flux or turbulent scalar flux


Radial distance


Reynolds number


Stream-wise distance from the nozzle


Local strain rate


Turbulent Schmidt number


Rate of strain tensor for the resolved scale




Run time of a simulation


Stream-wise velocity


Fluctuation of stream-wise velocity


Discharge velocity


Jet velocity along the centerline


Root mean square stream-wise velocity fluctuation

ui, uj

Velocity in i, j direction, respectively


Radial velocity


Fluctuation of radial velocity


Root mean square radial velocity fluctuation


Distance from the nozzle to the left and right vertical boundary

x, y, z

Cartesian Coordinates in the horizontal, lateral and vertical direction, respectively


Horizontal location of centerline peak

LES filter width


Fluid density


Ambient density


Effluent density


Fluid viscosity


SGS eddy viscosity or turbulent eddy viscosity


Scalar concentration


Dissipation rate


SGS Reynolds stresses or Reynolds stresses


Isotropic part of SGS stress


Scalar diffusivity


Turbulent dispersivity



The authors would like to thank the Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute and the Interdisciplinary Graduate School at Nanyang Technological University, for the award of research scholarship to the first author.


  1. 1.
    Celik IB, Ghia U, Roache PJ (2008) Procedure for estimation and reporting of uncertainty due to discretization in CFD applications. J Fluids Eng 130(7):078001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chen, CJ, Rodi W (1980) Vertical turbulent buoyant jets: a review of experimental data. NASA STI/Recon Technical Report A 80Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Christodoulou GC, Papakonstantis IG (2010) Simplified estimates of trajectory of inclined negatively buoyant jets. In: Proceedings of the 6th international symposium on environmental hydraulics vol 1, pp 165–170Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Christodoulou GC, Papakonstantis IG, Nikiforakis IK (2015) Desalination brine disposal by means of negatively buoyant jets. Desalin Water Treat 53(12):3208–3213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cipollina A, Brucato A, Grisafi F, Nicosia S (2005) Bench-scale investigation of inclined dense jets. J Hydraul Eng ASCE 131(11):1017–1022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Crowe AT, Davidson MJ, Nokes RI (2016) Velocity measurements in inclined negatively buoyant jets. Environ Fluid Mech 16(3):503–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Crowe AT, Davidson MJ, Nokes RI (2016) Modified reduced buoyancy flux model for desalination discharges. Desalination 378:53–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dejoan A, Leschziner MA (2005) Large eddy simulation of a plane turbulent wall jet. Phys Fluids 17(2):025102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Drami D, Yacobi YZ, Stambler N, Kress N (2011) Seawater quality and microbial communities at a desalination plant marine outfall. A field study at the Israeli Mediterranean coast. Water Res 45(17):5449–5462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Deshpande SS, Sathe MJ, Joshi JB (2009) Evaluation of local turbulence energy dissipation rate using PIV in jet loop reactor. Ind Eng Chem Res 48(10):5046–5057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fellouah H, Pollard A (2009) The velocity spectra and turbulence length scale distributions in the near to intermediate regions of a round free turbulent jet. Phys Fluids 21(11):115101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Foucaut JM, Carlier J, Stanislas M (2004) PIV optimization for the study of turbulent flow using spectral analysis. Meas Sci Technol 14(6):1046–1058CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Germano M, Piomelli U, Moin P, Cabot WH (1991) A dynamic subgrid-scale eddy viscosity model. Phys Fluids A 3(7):1760–1765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gildeh HK, Mohammadian A, Nistor I, Qiblawey H (2015) Numerical modeling of 30 degrees and 45 degrees inclined dense turbulent jets in stationary ambient. Environ Fluid Mech 15(3):537–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gruber MF, Johnson CJ, Tang CY, Jensen MH, Yde L, Hélix-Nielsen C (2011) Computational fluid dynamics simulations of flow and concentration polarization in forward osmosis membrane systems. J Membr Sci 379(1–2):488–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Heisenberg W (1948) On the theory of statistical and isotropic turbulence. Proc R Soc Lond A 195(1042):402–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jasak H (2009) OpenFOAM: open source CFD in research and industry. Int J Nav Archit Ocean Eng 1(2):89–94Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jiang B, Law AWK, Lee JHW (2014) Mixing of 30 and 45 inclined dense jets in shallow coastal waters. J Hydraul Eng 140(3):241–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kikkert GA, Davidson MJ, Nokes RI (2007) Inclined negatively buoyant discharges. J Hydraul Eng ASCE 133(5):545–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kolmogorov AN (1941) The local structure of turbulence in incompressible viscous fluid for very large Reynolds numbers. Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR 30:9–13Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lai CC, Lee JH (2012) Mixing of inclined dense jets in stationary ambient. J Hydro Environ Res 6(1):9–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lai AC, Zhao B, Law AWK, Adams EE (2015) A numerical and analytical study of the effect of aspect ratio on the behavior of a round thermal. Environ Fluid Mech 15(1):85–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Law AWK, Wang H (2000) Measurement of mixing processes with combined digital particle image velocimetry and planar laser induced fluorescence. Exp Therm Fluid Sci 22(3):213–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Law AWK (2006) Velocity and concentration distributions of round and plane turbulent jets. J Eng Math 56(1):69–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lilly DK (1992) A proposed modification of the germano-subgrid-scale closure method. Phys Fluids A Fluid Dyn 4(3):633–635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Milione M, Zeng C (2008) The effects of temperature and salinity on population growth and egg hatching success of the tropical calanoid copepod, Acartia sinjiensis. Aquaculture 275(1):116–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Obukhov A (1941) Spectral energy distribution in a turbulent flow. Izv Akad Nauk SSSR Ser Geogr i Geofiz 5:453–466Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Oliver CJ, Davidson MJ, Nokes RI (2008) k-ε Simulations of the initial mixing of desalination discharges. Environ Fluid Mech 8(5–6):617–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Palomar P, Lara JL, Losada IJ, Rodrigo M, Alvarez A (2012) Near field brine discharge modelling part 1: analysis of commercial tools. Desalination 290:14–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Papakonstantis IG, Christodoulou GC, Papanicolaou PN (2011) Inclined negatively buoyant jets 1: geometrical characteristics. J Hydraul Res 49(1):3–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Papakonstantis IG, Christodoulou GC, Papanicolaou PN (2011) Inclined negatively buoyant jets 2: concentration measurements. J Hydraul Res 49(1):13–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Papanicolaou PN (1984) Mass and momentum transport in a turbulent buoyant vertical axisymmetric jet. (Doctoral dissertation, California Institute of Technology)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Papanicolaou PN, Papakonstantis IG, Christodoulou GC (2008) On the entrainment coefficient in negatively buoyant jets. J Fluid Mech 614:447–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Pope S (2002) Turbulent flow. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Roberts PJW, Toms G (1987) Inclined dense jets in flowing current. J Hydraul Eng 113(3):323–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Roberts PJW, Ferrier A, Daviero G (1997) Mixing in inclined dense jets. J Hydraul Eng 123(8):693–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Shao D, Law AWK (2010) Mixing and boundary interactions of 30° and 45° inclined dense jets. Environ Fluid Mech 10(5):521–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Vafeiadou P, Papakonstantis IG, Christodoulou GC (2005) Numerical simulation of inclined negatively buoyant jets. In: Proceedings, 9th international conference on environmental science and technology, pp A1537–A1542Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wang H, Law AWK (2002) Second-order integral model for a round turbulent buoyant jet. J Fluid Mech 459:397–428Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Westerweel J, Elsinga GE, Adrian RJ (2013) Particle image velocimetry for complex and turbulent flows. Annu Rev Fluid Mech 45:409–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Yimer I, Campbell I, Jiang LY (2002) Estimation of the turbulent Schmidt number from experimental profiles of axial velocity and concentration for high-Reynolds-number jet flows. Can Aeronaut Space J 48(3):195–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Zhang S, Jiang B, Law AWK, Zhao B (2016) Large eddy simulations of 45° inclined dense jets. Environ Fluid Mech 16(1):101–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Zhang S, Law AWK, Jiang M (2017) Large eddy simulations of 45° and 60° inclined dense jets with bottom impact. J Hydro Environ Res 15:54–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mingtao Jiang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Adrian Wing-Keung Law
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Adrian C. H. Lai
    • 2
  1. 1.Interdisciplinary Graduate SchoolNanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Environmental Process Modelling Centre (EPMC), Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute (NEWRI)Nanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore
  3. 3.School of Civil and Environmental EngineeringNanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations