Spatiotemporal calibration of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide concentration estimates from an air quality model for Connecticut

  • Owais GilaniEmail author
  • Lisa A. McKay
  • Timothy G. Gregoire
  • Yongtao Guan
  • Brian P. Leaderer
  • Theodore R. Holford


A spatiotemporal calibration and resolution refinement model was fitted to calibrate nitrogen dioxide (\(\hbox {NO}_2\)) concentration estimates from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, using two sources of observed data on \(\hbox {NO}_2\) that differed in their spatial and temporal resolutions. To refine the spatial resolution of the CMAQ model estimates, we leveraged information using additional local covariates including total traffic volume within 2 km, population density, elevation, and land use characteristics. Predictions from this model greatly improved the bias in the CMAQ estimates, as observed by the much lower mean squared error (MSE) at the \(\hbox {NO}_2\) monitor sites. The final model was used to predict the daily concentration of ambient \(\hbox {NO}_2\) over the entire state of Connecticut on a grid with pixels of size 300 \(\times \) 300 m. A comparison of the prediction map with a similar map for the CMAQ estimates showed marked improvement in the spatial resolution. The effect of local covariates was evident in the finer spatial resolution map, where the contribution of traffic on major highways to ambient \(\hbox {NO}_2\) concentration stands out. An animation was also provided to show the change in the concentration of ambient \(\hbox {NO}_2\) over space and time for 1994 and 1995.


Ambient air pollution CMAQ Integrated exposure modeling Kalman filter Resolution refinement SCARR model 

Supplementary material

10651_2019_430_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (413 kb)
Supplementary material 1


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MathematicsBucknell UniversityLewisburgUSA
  2. 2.Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Yale School of Public HealthYale UniversityNew HavenUSA
  3. 3.Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, Yale UniversityNew HavenUSA
  4. 4.Department of Management Science, School of Business AdministrationUniversity of MiamiCoral GablesUSA

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