Extending Cognitive Load Theory to Incorporate Working Memory Resource Depletion: Evidence from the Spacing Effect
- 1.9k Downloads
Depletion of limited working memory resources may occur following extensive mental effort resulting in decreased performance compared to conditions requiring less extensive mental effort. This “depletion effect” can be incorporated into cognitive load theory that is concerned with using the properties of human cognitive architecture, especially working memory, when designing instruction. Two experiments were carried out on the spacing effect that occurs when learning that is spaced by temporal gaps between learning episodes is superior to identical, massed learning with no gaps between learning episodes. Using primary school students learning mathematics, it was found that students obtained lower scores on a working memory capacity test (Experiments 1 and 2) and higher ratings of cognitive load (Experiment 2) after massed than after spaced practice. The reduction in working memory capacity may be attributed to working memory resource depletion following the relatively prolonged mental effort associated with massed compared to spaced practice. An expansion of cognitive load theory to incorporate working memory resource depletion along with instructional design implications, including the spacing effect, is discussed.
KeywordsCognitive load theory Human cognitive architecture Working memory resource depletion Spacing effect
We would like to thank the students, teachers, and principal of the Chengdu Normal School primary school (Vanke Campus), Chengdu, China for their support.
The second author acknowledges partial funding from CONICYT PAI, national funding research program for returning researchers from abroad, 2014, No 82140021; and PIA–CONICYT Basal Funds for Centers of Excellence, Project FB0003.
- Delaney, P. F., Verkoeijen, P. P. J. L., & Spirgel, A. (2010). Spacing and testing effects: a deeply critical, lengthy, and at times discursive review of the literature. In B. H. Ross (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation: advances in research and theory (Vol. 53, pp. 63–147). New York: Academic. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0079-7421(10)53003-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ebbinghaus, H. (1885/1964). Memory: a contribution to experimental psychology. Oxford: Dover.Google Scholar
- Geary, D. (2012). Evolutionary educational psychology. In K. Harris, S. Graham, & T. Urdan (Eds.), APA Educational Psychology Handbook (Vol. 1, pp. 597–621). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
- Kapler, I. V., Weston, T., & Wiseheart, M. (2015). Spacing in a simulated undergraduate classroom: long-term benefits for factual and higher-level learning. Learning and Instruction, 36, 38–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2014.11.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kirschner, P. A., Sweller, J., & Clark, R. E. (2006). Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: an analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching. Educational Psychologist, 41, 75–86. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep4102_1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sweller, J. (2016a). Cognitive load theory, evolutionary educational psychology, and instructional design. In D. Geary & D. Berch (Eds.), Evolutionary perspectives on child development and education (pp. 291–306). Switzerland: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-29986-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar