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Genotoxicity response of Vicia faba seedlings to cadmium in soils as characterized by direct soil exposure and micronucleus test

  • Lang Chen
  • Shankui Yuan
  • Xingang Liu
  • Xinxin Zhou
  • Yanming Zhou
  • Yufang SongEmail author
Article

Abstract

To overcome the drawbacks of the Vicia faba root tip micronucleus test in soil using the solution extract method, we conducted a potting experiment by direct soil exposure. Cadmium was spiked into 3 typical soils (brown soil, red soil, and black soil) to simulate environmental concentrations (0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg kg−1). Multiple Vicia faba tissues (primary root tips, secondary root tips, and leaf tips) were sampled, and mitotic index (MI), chromosome aberration frequency (CA), and micronucleus frequency (MN) were used as endpoints after a seedling period of 5 days. The results showed a response between Cd concentrations and multiple sampling tissues of Vicia faba, and the secondary root tips responded to Cd stress the most, followed by primary root tips and leaf tips. Soil physicochemical properties (e.g., pH, total phosphorus, total organic carbon, etc.) influenced the genotoxicity of Cd, and pH was the dominant factor, which resulted in the genetic toxicity response of Cd in soils in the order: red soil > brown soil > black soil. The lowest observable effect concentration (LOEC) of Cd was 1.25 mg kg−1 for both brown soil and red soil and 2.5 mg kg−1 for black soil. In view of this, we suggested that soil properties should be considered in evaluating genotoxicity risk of Cd in soil, especially with soil pH range, and the secondary root tips should be taken as suitable test tissues in the MN test due to its more sensible response feature to Cd stress in soil.

Highlights

  1. 1.

    The best sampling tissue for micronucleus test of Vicia faba seedlings was secondary root tips, followed by primary root and leaf tips, and the later may be used for in situ monitoring.

     
  2. 2.

    Soil pH did have influence on the genotoxicity effects of cadmium, and the NOECs of Cd on Vicia faba were 0.625 (red soil), 0.625 (brown soil) and 1.25 (black soil) mg kg−1, respectively.

     
  3. 3.

    The existing Cd limits in soil may not be protective enough for higher plants and even human beings.

     

Keywords

Direct soil exposure Genotoxicity Vicia faba Micronucleus test Secondary root tip Cadmium 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was financially supported by the National Key R&D Program of China, 2018YFD0200100 and the Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31801768 and 31861133021).

Funding

This research was financially supported by the National Key R&D Program of China, 2018YFD0200100 and the Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31801768 and 31861133021).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This manuscript does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors. All authors have read and approved this version of the article, and due care has been taken to ensure the integrity of the work. Neither the entire paper nor any part of its content has been published or has been accepted elsewhere. And it is not being submitted to any other journal.

Informed consent

This manuscript does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lang Chen
    • 1
  • Shankui Yuan
    • 2
  • Xingang Liu
    • 1
  • Xinxin Zhou
    • 2
  • Yanming Zhou
    • 2
  • Yufang Song
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Disease and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant ProtectionChinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.Institute for the Control of AgrochemicalsMinistry of Agriculture and Rural AffairsBeijingChina
  3. 3.Key Laboratory of Pollution Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Institute of Applied EcologyChinese Academy of SciencesShenyangP.R. China

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