Neuroendocrine and immunotoxicity of polyaromatic hydrocarbon, chrysene in crustacean post larvae
Polyaromatic hydrocarbons are a group of chemical pollutants which cause a significant threat to the living organisms in estuaries and marine ecosystems. We report the effect of chrysene, a major PAH pollutant found in Cochin Estuary along the southwest coast of India, on the neuroendocrine and immune gene expression of the post larvae (PL-25) of Penaeus monodon. The PL- 25 of P. monodon were administered with feed coated with increasing concentrations of chrysene (1, 2 and 3 µg/g) for 10 days and the gene expression was studied on 7th, 11th and 15th day. The PL exposed to chrysene showed moulting stress and changes in the levels of moult-inhibiting hormone I (MIH I) indicated by irregular moulting in the experimental tanks. At the molecular level, the higher concentration of chrysene induced two-fold upregulation of neuroendocrine (MIH I) and downregulation of immune (ProPO and crustin) gene on the 7th day of exposure. The expression of MIH I gene reduced on withdrawing the experimental feed (on 11th day), while continued downregulation of ProPO and crustin were observed on the 11th day. The results of the present study indicate that the microgram levels of PAH can impinge the neuroendocrine and immune system of the P. monodon, which may induce morbidity and mortality to the larvae in polluted coastal ecosystems. Therefore, more attention may be given to avoid PAH pollution in the estuaries to maintain a healthy ecosystem and to protect the animals from extinction.
KeywordsChrysene Penaeus monodon ProPO MIH Pollution Cochin Estuary
The Director CSIR-NIO and Scientist-in-Charge of Regional Centre Kochi of CSIR-NIO are acknowledged for providing the laboratory facility. This work was accomplished with the financial support of KSCSTE (grant No. 1577/2016/KSCSTE). This is NIO contribution No. 6435.
This work was supported by Kerala State Council for Science, Technology and Environment, Kerala (Order No. 1577/2016/KSCSTE) funding towards the Postdoctoral fellowship.
AA and VS were responsible for designing the concept of the manuscript, preparing figures and final manuscript. VS, AKS and JC were involved in carrying out the experiment. KV and ISB shared lab space for conducting bioassay and ELISA studies respectively.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors. All applicable international, national and institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
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