, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp 69–75 | Cite as

Exposure to herbicide linuron results in alterations in hematological profile and stress biomarkers of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

  • Hanna Lutnicka
  • Bartosz BojarskiEmail author
  • Małgorzata Witeska
  • Barbara Tombarkiewicz
  • Grzegorz Formicki


Phenylurea herbicides such as linuron are commonly applied in agriculture. Common carp juveniles were subjected to 31.5 µg/L of linuron for 14 days, and then to 30 days of purification. Peripheral blood was sampled after 1, 3, 7 and 14 days of exposure and 7, 14 and 30 days of purification and hematological parameters were evaluated: erythrocyte (RBCc) and leukocyte (WBCc) counts, hematocrit (Ht), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), mean cell volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and differential leukocyte count. For evaluation of cortisol and catecholamine concentrations blood was sampled after 3, 6 and 12 h, after 1, 3 and 14 days of exposure, and after 30 days of purification. Linuron caused mainly transient increase in RBCc, Ht and MCV values and increase in WBCc and percentage of juvenile neutrophils. The herbicide caused persistant increase of cortisol and catecholamine concentrations. The results indicate that exposure to low concentration of linuron induced a stress response in common carp.


Fish Pesticide Blood Cortisol Catecholamines 



This study has been supported by grant N N304 279440 (National Science Center, Poland), University Centre of Veterinary Medicine UJ-UA in Krakow and DS 3263/ZWRiDZ (Department of Veterinary Science, Animal Reproduction and Welfare, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Poland).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Ethical standards

The authors declare that this experiment was carried out with the highest ethical standards.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hanna Lutnicka
    • 1
  • Bartosz Bojarski
    • 2
    Email author
  • Małgorzata Witeska
    • 2
  • Barbara Tombarkiewicz
    • 3
  • Grzegorz Formicki
    • 4
  1. 1.Institute of Veterinary Science, University Centre of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of Agriculture in KrakowKrakowPoland
  2. 2.Department of Animal Physiology, Institute of BiologySiedlce University of Natural Sciences and HumanitiesSiedlcePoland
  3. 3.Department of Veterinary Science, Animal Reproduction and WelfareUniversity of Agriculture in KrakowKrakowPoland
  4. 4.Department of Animal Physiology and Toxicology, Institute of BiologyPedagogical University of KrakowKrakowPoland

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