, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp 48–61 | Cite as

Toxicity of wine effluents and assessment of a depuration system for their control: assay with tadpoles of Rhinella arenarum (BUFONIDAE)

  • Ana Laura Navas RomeroEmail author
  • Mario Andrés Herrera Moratta
  • María Rosa Rodríguez
  • Lorena Beatriz Quiroga
  • Marcelo Echegaray
  • Eduardo Alfredo Sanabria


We evaluated the toxicity of the winery effluent and the efficiency of a symbiotic depuration system by means an experiment with Rhinella arenarum tadpoles. The studied effluent was taken from warehouses during the cleaning season. These effluents subsequently subjected to the purification treatment under evaluation. The effluent samples differentiated into two treatment levels: “raw” where the effluent was evaluated with field conditions and “treated” where the effluent was previously filtered with the symbiotic depuration system. The results of the bioassays compared with the physicochemical parameters determined in the effluent samples. The lethal response had a clear-cut correspondence with the effluent quality assessed utilizing physicochemical parameters. In all cases, dilution of the samples resulted in a significant reduction of their toxicity. It concluded that (a) winery effluents could be harmful to tadpoles of R. arenarum, (b) the symbiotic purification system used to treat wine effluents it would produce a significant reduction in the contaminant levels of the effluent. However, this reduction in contaminant levels does not provide sufficient safety for the release of the effluents into the environment.


Bioassays Contaminants Winery Symbiotic 



We thank G. Herrera and H. Merenda for their collaboration in the field work. To F. Jofre Barud for her help with the statistical analyzes. Special thanks to D. Barrasso for help in the diaphanized of tadpoles. We thank the provincial fauna office of San Juan for permission to conduct our research (SA y DS n° 1300-4736-2011). To all the technical staff of the Institute of Chemistry of the FI-UNSJ for their collaboration in the laboratory. Special thanks to Anna Murakozy for the correction of the English and suggestions that improved this work. Finally, to the anonymous reviewers for helping us greatly improve this effort.


This work was funded by a CICITCA UNSJ project (I1010 Director: Miguel A. Navas).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. All members at the time of the investigation belonged to the Faculty of Exact, Physical, and Natural Sciences of the National University of San Juan. The corresponding author was the beneficiary of the CICITCA Scholarship.

Ethical approval

Although at the time of the investigation there was no ethical committee at the National University of San Juan, all international, national and institutional guidelines applicable to the care and use of animals have followed.

Informed consent

All authors declare to be participants in the research and their respective future consequences.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones en Zonas Áridas – CCT Mendoza – CONICETMendozaArgentina
  2. 2.Facultad de IngenieríaUniversidad Nacional de San JuanSan JuanArgentina
  3. 3.Instituto de Ciencias BásicasUniversidad Nacional de San Juan – CONICETSan JuanArgentina
  4. 4.Facultad de Ciencias ExactasUniversidad Nacional de CuyoMendozaArgentina

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