Spent lubricant oil-contaminated soil toxicity to Eisenia andrei before and after bioremediation

  • Sanye Soroldoni
  • Graciane Silva
  • Fabio Veríssimo CorreiaEmail author
  • Marcia Marques


Bioremediation is very efficient in biodegrading petroleum hydrocarbons. However, the decrease in these target contaminants in soils is not necessarily followed by a decrease in toxicity. The remaining contaminants can be enough to retain toxicity, while incomplete degradation of several compounds can generate sub-products, which can be even more toxic. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess acute and chronic toxicity in Eisenia andrei exposed to soil contaminated with 5% spent lubricant oil before and after 22 months of bioremediation in 150 L aerobic reactors. Applied bioremediation strategies were biostimulation (BIOS), bioaugmentation by adding mature compost from municipal solid waste (BIOA1) and bioaugmentation by adding non-mature compost from municipal solid waste (BIOA2). After 22 months, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) were reduced 71% in BIOS and 73% in both BIOA1 and BIOA2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were reduced in about 98% in all treatments (BIOS, BIOA1 and BIOA2). At the 14th day of exposure, mortality rates were 7 ± 2, 20 ± 0, 75 ± 25, 93 ± 12 and 100 ± 0% for Eisenia andrei exposed to CONT (soil with no oil addition), BIOS, OLU (soil newly contaminated with 5% spent oil), BIOA1 and BIOA2, respectively. After 14 days, surviving specimens in both BIOS and OLU soils exhibited anatomic deformations, less biomass than the controls, and decrease in juvenile forms and coelomocytes. After 28 days, the mortality rate for BIOS and OLU soils increased to 97 and 100%, respectively. Therefore, even with a reduction of 71–73% for TPH and 98% for PAH, toxic effects remained in all soils bioremediated, probably due to the remaining hydrocarbons and/or hydrocarbon biodegradation products. The results indicate that both chemical analyses and toxicological monitoring are required to follow-up soil remediation progress.


Contaminated soil Petroleum hydrocarbons Biostimulation Bioaugmentation Ecotoxicity 



The authors acknowledge financial support from The Carlos Chagas Filho Research Support Foundation-FAPERJ and The National Council for Scientific and Technological Development-CNPq.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sanye Soroldoni
    • 1
    • 3
  • Graciane Silva
    • 1
  • Fabio Veríssimo Correia
    • 2
    Email author
  • Marcia Marques
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering-DESMARio de Janeiro State University-UERJ. Rua São Francisco XavierRio de JaneiroBrazil
  2. 2.Laboratory of Environmental HealthRio de Janeiro State Federal University-UNIRIORio de JaneiroBrazil
  3. 3.Laboratory of Organic Microcontaminants and Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Oceanography InstituteRio Grande Federal University-FURGRio GrandeBrazil

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