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Ecotoxicology

, Volume 24, Issue 4, pp 915–925 | Cite as

Morphological alterations in the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas 1766 (Rotifera: Monogononta) caused by vinclozolin chronic exposure

  • Jesús Alvarado-Flores
  • Roberto Rico-MartínezEmail author
  • Araceli Adabache-Ortíz
  • Marcelo Silva-Briano
Article

Abstract

Vinclozolin (VZ) is a dicarboximide fungicide widely used on fruits, vegetables and wines, effective against fungi plagues. In this study we characterized the effects of VZ using a 4-day reproductive chronic assay with the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus. The assay included observations of several features of asexual and sexual reproduction. Our results indicate that VZ: (a) increased asexual and sexual reproduction, (b) caused severe abnormality in females and (c) these abnormalities were inherited by sexual and asexual reproduction. At 1.2 mg/L three abnormal females were found out of 457 total females (0.66 %). This low percentage is consistent and reproducible according to further analysis, where we increased the number of replicates and total females exposed to 1.2 mg/L of VZ, and found 18 abnormal females out of 2868 total females (0.63 % abnormality). Interestingly, abnormal females found at 5.6 mg/L VZ exposure, were able to show mating behavior. Our results suggest that VZ behaves as a strong endocrine disruptor whose effects show the characteristic inverted-U-shape exposure concentration response curve regarding the intrinsic population increase and the percentage of abnormalities as endpoints.

Keywords

Endocrine disruption Abnormal rotifers Transgenerational effects Hormesis Fungicide Freshwater invertebrates 

Notes

Acknowledgments

J. A.-F. acknowledges the support of the CONACyT (Mexico´s National Council for Science and Technology) Scholarship Number 266358. Special thanks to Shantal Suárez-Mercado for helping us to obtain pictures and video recordings, and taking notes in all experiments. Thanks to Mario Alberto Arzate-Cárdenas for critical review of the manuscript.

Conflict of interest

The authors report no declarations of interest.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material 1 (AVI 845033 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jesús Alvarado-Flores
    • 1
    • 3
  • Roberto Rico-Martínez
    • 1
    Email author
  • Araceli Adabache-Ortíz
    • 2
  • Marcelo Silva-Briano
    • 2
  1. 1.Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciencias BásicasUniversidad Autónoma de AguascalientesAguascalientesMexico
  2. 2.Departamento de Biología, Centro de Ciencias BásicasUniversidad Autónoma de AguascalientesAguascalientesMexico
  3. 3.Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología/Unidad de Ciencias del Agua, Centro de Investigación Científica de YucatánCancúnMexico

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