Advertisement

Preschoolers’ Emergent Motivations to Learn Reading: A Grounded Theory Study

  • Dilek AltunEmail author
Article
  • 46 Downloads

Abstract

Early literacy skills are part of a larger set of skills, knowledge, and affective responses gained throughout childhood; however, emergent reading motivation has been neglected in research and practice. Theoretical models for reading motivation are available in the literature, but they were developed based on school-aged children and print-based reading experiences. The goal of the current study was to expand understanding of young preconventional readers’ motivations to read and identify the dimensions of emergent reading motivation in the digital age. This study employed qualitative research with a grounded theory methodology. Participants included 353 preschoolers from two large suburban and two sub-province areas in Turkey. A Constant comparison method was used to analyze the interview data. Ten motivational categories were detected (avoidance, challenge, competition, curiosity, enjoyment, employment-financial, learning, recognition, scholastic, and social), which were similar to the findings of previous studies conducted with school-aged children but included two additional categories (entertainment-play, and communication) specific to preconventional readers’ motivations to learn to read. An Emergent Reading Motivation Framework is proposed to organize and explain the dual associations between these categories. Young children’s self-evaluation of their current reading ability and their eagerness to learn reading were not differentiated regarding gender. However, reading motivation is a complex issue, and the framework is a preliminary one to elucidate preconventional readers’ multifaceted motivations to learn reading and provides comprehensive information of the constructs of motivation and the duality of relations between the constructs. Further studies will be needed to verify the tentative motivational framework.

Keywords

Preconventional Children Emergent reading motivation Grounded theory Emergent reading motivation framework 

Notes

References

  1. Aksaclioglu, A. G., & Yilmaz, B. (2007). Öğrencilerin televizyon izlemeleri ve bilgisayar kullanmalarının okuma alışkanlıkları üzerine etkisi [Impacts of watching television and computer using on students’ reading habits]. Türk Kütüphaneciliği, 21(1), 3–28.Google Scholar
  2. Aras, G. (2017). Literature and culture: Reading and library habits for ındividual and social progress. Hitit University Journal of Social Sciences Institute, Year, 10, 945–968.Google Scholar
  3. Altun, D. (2013). An investigation of the relationship between preschoolers’ reading attitudes and home literacy environment (Master's thesis). Turkey: Middle East Technical University.Google Scholar
  4. Altun, D. (2017). Young children’s literacy habits in digital world regarding digital equality perspective. In Paper presented at the 69th OMEP World Assembly and International Conference. Opatija, Croatia.Google Scholar
  5. Altun, D., & Tantekin-Erden, F. (2015). Okuryazarlık süreci açısından ev-içi okuryazarlıkortamı: çocukların ilkokula başlamadan önce ev-içi okuryazarlık deneyimlerinin incelenmesi [Home literacy environment regarding literacy process: an investigation of the home literacy experiences before children begin primary school]. In 14th National Primary Teacher Education Symposium (USOS). Bartın, Turkey.Google Scholar
  6. Altun, D., Tantekin Erden, F., & Snow, C. E. (2018). A multilevel analysis of home and classroom literacy environments in relation to preschoolers’ early literacy development. Psychology in the Schools, 55(9), 1098–1120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Altun, D., & Ulusoy, M. (2017). Using printed versus electronic children's picture book in classrooms: A study on the reading prosodies, attitudes self-assessment of pre-service primary and preschool teachers. Paper presented at 26th International Conference on Educational Sciences, Antalya, Turkey.Google Scholar
  8. Baker, L., & Scher, D. (2002). Beginning readers’ motivation for reading in relation to parental beliefs and home reading experiences. Reading Psychology, 23(4), 239–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baker, L., & Wigfield, A. (1999). Dimensions of children’s motivation for reading and their relations to reading activity and reading achievement. Reading Research Quarterly, 34, 452–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bandura, A. (1989). Human agency in social cognitive theory. American Psychologist, 44(9), 1175–1184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barton, R. L. (2018). The effect of pleasure reading on ninth and tenth grade student’s reading motivation in an English language arts classroom. (Unpublished dissertation). University of Memphis, Tennessee, United States.Google Scholar
  12. Bates, C. C., D’Agostino, J. V., Gambrell, L., & Xu, M. (2016). Reading recovery: Exploring the effects on first graders’ reading motivation and achievement. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 21(1), 47–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Becker, M., McElvany, N., & Kortenbruck, M. (2010). Intrinsic and extrinsic reading motivation as predictors of reading literacy: A longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(4), 773–785.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0020084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Berk, L. E. (2009). Child development. Boston: Pearson.Google Scholar
  15. Bretherton, I. (1984). Representing the social world in symbolic play: Reality and fantasy. In I. Bretherton (Ed.), symbolic play (pp. 3–41). Florida: Academic Press Inc.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bus, A. G., Takacs, Z. K., & Kegel, C. A. (2015). Affordances and limitations of electronic storybooks for young children’s emergent literacy. Developmental Review, 35, 79–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cartwright, K. B., Marshall, T. R., & Wray, E. (2016). A longitudinal study of the role of reading motivation in primary students’ reading comprehension: Implications for a less simple view of reading. Reading Psychology, 37(1), 55–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chan, M. Y. H., Chu, S. K. W., Mok, S. W. S., & Tam, F. (2016). Fostering interest in reading and strengthening reading comprehension ability of primary school students using a children’s literature e-quiz bank on the cloud. In: Paper presented at the Quality Education Fund Project Seminar: The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, June 30, 2015. Retrieved from https://hub.hku.hk/bitstream/10722/235261/1/Content.pdf?accept=1. Accessed 30 June 2017.
  19. Chapman, J. W., Tunmer, W. E., & Prochnow, J. E. (2000). Early reading-related skills and performance, reading self-concept, and the development of academic self-concept: A longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92, 703–708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chapter, B. U., & Theta, P. L. (1974). Children’s reading interests classified by age level. The Reading Teacher, 27(7), 694–700.Google Scholar
  21. Chapman, J. W., & Tunmer, W. E. (1995). Development of young children’s reading self-concepts: An examination of emerging subcomponents and their relationship with reading achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 87(1), 154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Charmaz, K. (1996). The search for meanings: Grounded theory. In J. A. Smith, R. Harre, & L. Van Langenhove (Eds.), Rethinking methods in psychology (pp. 27–49). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  23. Chiu, M. M., & Chow, B. W. Y. (2010). Culture, motivation, and reading achievement: High school students in 41 countries. Learning and Individual Differences, 20(6), 579–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Confederation of Turkish Trade Unions (2018). Poverty line in Turkey. Retrieved from http://www.turkis.org.tr/Aclik-Yoksulluk-k91. Accessed 30 June 2017.
  25. Conradi, K., Jang, B. G., & McKenna, M. C. (2014). Motivation terminology in reading research: A conceptual review. Educational Psychology Review, 26, 127–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2008). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. California: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  28. Cunningham, A. E. (2006). Accounting for children’s orthographic learning while reading text: Do children self-teach? Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 95(1), 56–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cunningham, D. D. (2008). Literacy environment quality in preschool and children’s attitudes toward reading and writing. Literacy Teaching and Learning, 12(2), 19–36.Google Scholar
  30. Davey, G., De Lian, C., & Higgins, L. (2007). The university entrance examination system in China. Journal of further and Higher Education, 31(4), 385–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dedeoglu, H., & Ulusoy, M. (2013). Classroom pre-service teachers’ reading attitudes. Research in Reading & Writing Instruction, 1(2), 80–88.Google Scholar
  32. Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong. (2018). Hong Kong reading habits summary of findings and recommendations. Retrieved from http://www.eng.dab.org.hk/dab-survey-on-hong-kong-reading-habits-summary-of-findings-recommendations/. Accessed 30 June 2017.
  33. Downing, J. (1979). Reading and reasoning. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Eccles, J., & Wigfield, A. (2002). Motivational beliefs, values and goals. Annual Review Psychology, 53, 109–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Eccles, J. S., Wigfield, A., Harold, R., & Blumenfeld, P. B. (1993). Age and gender differences in children’s self- and task perceptions during elementary school. Child Development, 64, 830–847.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Edmunds, K. M., & Bauserman, K. L. (2006). What teachers can learn about reading motivation through conversations with children. The Reading Teacher, 59(5), 414–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Erikson, E. H. (1959). Identity and life cycle. New York: International University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Erikson, E. H. (1993). Childhood and society. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  39. Ferrer, E., Shaywitz, B. A., Holahan, J. M., Marchione, K. E., Michaels, R., & Shaywitz, S. E. (2015). Achievement gap in reading is present as early as first grade and persists through adolescence. The Journal of Pediatrics, 167(5), 1121–1125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Frijters, J. C., Barron, R. W., & Brunello, M. (2000). Direct and mediated influences of home literacy and literacy interest on prereaders’ oral vocabulary and early written language skill. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(3), 466–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. García, J. R., & Cain, K. (2014). Decoding and reading comprehension: A meta-analysis to identify which reader and assessment characteristics influence the strength of the relationship in English. Review of Educational Research, 84(1), 74–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Geva, E., & Siegel, L. S. (2000). Orthographic and cognitive factors in the concurrent development of basic reading skills in two languages. Reading and Writing, 12(1–2), 1–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Glaser, B. G. (1992). Emergence vs forcing: Basic of grounded theory analysis. Mill Valley: Sociology Press.Google Scholar
  44. Glaser, B. G. (2002). Conceptualization: On theory and theorizing using grounded theory. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 1(2), 23–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gottardo, A., Pasquarella, A., Chen, X., & Ramirez, G. (2016). The impact of language on the relationships between phonological awareness and word reading in different orthographies: A test of the psycholinguistic grain size theory in bilinguals. Applied Psycholinguistics, 37(5), 1083–1115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Greaney, V., & Neuman, S. B. (1990). The functions of reading: A cross-cultural perspective. Reading Research Quarterly, 25(3), 172–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Green, M., & Piel, J. A. (2002). Theories of human development: A comparative approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  48. Guo, R. X., Dobson, T., & Petrina, S. (2008). Digital natives, digital immigrants: An analysis of age and ICT competency in teacher education. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 38(3), 235–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Guthrie, J. T., Coddington, C. S., & Wigfield, A. (2009). Profiles of reading motivation among African American and Caucasian students. Journal of Literacy Research, 41(3), 317–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Guthrie, J. T., Hoa, A. L. W., Wigfield, A., Tonks, S. M., Humenick, N. M., & Littles, E. (2007). Reading motivation and reading comprehension growth in the later elementary years. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 32(3), 282–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Guthrie, J., & Knowles, K. (2001). Promoting reading motivation. In L. Verhoven & C. Snow (Eds.), Literacy and motivation. Reading engagement in individuals and groups (pp. 159–176). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  52. Guthrie, J. T., Van Meter, P., McCann, A. D., & Wigfield, A. (1996). Growth of literacy engagement: Changes in motivations and strategies during concept-oriented reading instruction. Reading Research Quarterly, 31(3), 306–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Guthrie, J. T., & Wigfield, A. (2000). Engagement and motivation in reading. In M. L. Kamil, P. B. Mosenthal, P. D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (pp. 403–422). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  54. Guthrie, J. T., Wigfield, A., & VonSecker, C. (2000). Effects of integrated instruction on motivation and strategy use in reading. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(2), 331–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Harrison, E., & McTavish, M. (2018). ‘i’Babies: Infants’ and toddlers’ emergent language and literacy in a digital culture of iDevices. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 18(2), 163–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hernandez, D. J. (2011). Double jeopardy: How third-grade reading skills and poverty ınfluence high school graduation. Annie E. Casey Foundation. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED518818.pdf.
  57. Hill, J. P., & Lynch, M. E. (1983). The intensification of gender-related role expectations during early adolescence. In J. Brooks-Gunn & A. Petersen (Eds.), Girls at puberty: Biological and psychosocial perspectives (pp. 201–228). New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hochweber, J., & Vieluf, S. (2018). Gender differences in reading achievement and enjoyment of reading: The role of perceived teaching quality. The Journal of Educational Research, 111(3), 268–283.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00220671.2016.1253536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Howes, C., & Matheson, C. C. (1992). Sequences in the development of competent play with peers: Social and social pretend play. Developmental Psychology, 28(5), 961–974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Huck, C. S. (1973). Strategies for improving interest and appreciation in literature. In P. C. Burns & L. M. Schell (Eds.), Elementary school language arts. Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  61. İleri, A. (2017). Okuma kültürü ve okul kütüphaneleri raporu 2017/Okul Kütüphanecileri Derneği [Reading culture and school libraries report 2017/School libraries association]. Türk Kütüphaneciliği, 31(2), 259–262.Google Scholar
  62. International Reading Association. (2000). Excellent reading teachers: A position statement of the International Reading Association. Retrieved from https://www.literacyworldwide.org/docs/default-source/where-we-stand/excellent-reading-teachers-position-statement.pdf?sfvrsn=d44ea18e_6.
  63. Johnson, J. E., Christie, J. F., & Yawkey, T. D. (1999). Play and early childhood development. White Plains: Longman.Google Scholar
  64. Kabali, H. K., Irigoyen, M. M., Nunez-Davis, R., Budacki, J. G., Mohanty, S. H., Leister, K. P., et al. (2015). Exposure and use of mobile media devices by young children. Pediatrics, 136(6), 1–7.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2015-2151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kervin, L., Verenikina, I., & Rivera, C. (2018). Digital play and learning in the home: Families’ perspective. In S. Danby, M. Fleer, C. Davidson, & M. Hatzigianni (Eds.), Digital childhoods: International perspectives on early childhood education and development (pp. 117–130). Singapore: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kucirkova, N., Littleton, K., & Cremin, T. (2017). Young children’s reading for pleasure with digital books: Six key facets of engagement. Cambridge Journal of Education, 47(1), 67–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kush, J. C., & Watkins, M. W. (1996). Long-term stability of children’s attitudes toward reading. The Journal of Educational Research, 89(5), 315–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lau, K. L. (2009). Grade differences in reading motivation among Hong Kong primary and secondary students. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 79(4), 713–733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lee, M., & Larson, R. (2000). The Korean ‘examination hell’: Long hours of studying, distress, and depression. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29(2), 249–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Leong, D. J., & Bodrova, E. (2012). Assessing and scaffolding make-believe play. Young Children, 28–34. Retrieved from http://www.imagineeducation.com.au/files/CHCECE018022/1.pdf.
  71. Livingstone, S., Mascheroni, G., & Staksrud, E. (2018). European research on children’s internet use: Assessing the past and anticipating the future. New Media & Society, 20(3), 1103–1122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2004). What should we do about motivation theory? Six recommendations for the twenty-first century. Academy of Management Review, 29(3), 388–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Logan, S., Medford, E., & Hughes, N. (2011). The importance of intrinsic motivation for high and low ability readers’ reading comprehension performance. Learning and Individual Differences, 21(1), 124–128.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2010.09.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lowe, P. A., & Ang, R. P. (2012). Cross-cultural examination of test anxiety among US and Singapore students on the test anxiety scale for elementary students (TAS-E). Educational Psychology, 32(1), 107–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Marinak, B. A., & Gambrell, L. B. (2010). Reading motivation: Exploring the elementary gender gap. Literacy Research and Instruction, 49(2), 129–141.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19388070902803795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Marinak, B. A., Malloy, J. B., Gambrell, L. B., & Mazzoni, S. A. (2015). Me and my reading profile: A tool for assessing early reading motivation. The Reading Teacher, 69(1), 51–62.  https://doi.org/10.1002/trtr.1362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Marsh, J., Hannon, P., Lewis, M., & Ritchie, L. (2017). Young children’s initiation into family literacy practices in the digital age. Journal of Early Childhood Research, 15(1), 47–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mata, L. (2011). Motivation for reading and writing in kindergarten children. Reading Psychology, 32(3), 272–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Mata, L., Monteiro, V., & Peixoto, F. (2009). Motivação para a leituraaolongo da escolaridade. Análise Psicológica, 27(4), 563–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Mazzoni, S. A., Gambrell, L. B., & Korkeamaki, R. L. (1999). A cross-cultural perspective of early literacy motivation. Reading Psychology, 20(3), 237–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. McCormick, C., & Mason, J. M. (1984). Intervention procedures for increasing preschool children's interest in and knowledge about reading. Center for the Study of Reading Technical Report; no. 312. Retrieved from https://www.ideals.illinois.edu/bitstream/handle/2142/18043/ctrstreadtechrepv01984i00312_opt.pdf?sequence=1.
  82. McGeown, S., Goodwin, H., Henderson, N., & Wright, P. (2012). Gender differences in reading motivation: Does sex or gender identity provide a better account? Journal of Research in Reading, 35(3), 328–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. McGeown, S. P., Osborne, C., Warhurst, A., Norgate, R., & Duncan, L. G. (2016). Understanding children’s reading activities: Reading motivation, skill and child characteristics as predictors. Journal of research in reading, 39(1), 109–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Miller, R. (2011). Vygotsky in perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Ministry of Labor, Social Services, and Family. (2018). Annual income statistics. Retrieved from https://www.ailevecalisma.gov.tr/istatistikler/calisma-hayati-istatistikleri/resmi-istatistik-programi/calismahayati-istatistikleri-kitabi/.
  86. Ministry of National Education [MONE]. (2013). Preschool education program. Retrieved from https://kres.dsi. gov.tr/docs/default-document-library/ooproram.pdf?sfvrsn = 2.
  87. Ministry of National Education [MONE]. (2018a). 2023 education vision. Retrieved from http://2023vizyonu.meb.gov.tr/doc/2023_EGITIM_VIZYONU.pdf.
  88. Ministry of National Education [MONE]. (2018b). National education statistics: Formal education 2017/2018. Retrieved from http://sgb.meb.gov.tr/meb_iys_dosyalar/2018_09/06123056_meb_istatistikleri_orgun_egitim_2017_2018.pdf.
  89. Ministry of National Education [MONE]. (2018c). Turkish language education program. Retrieved from http://mufredat.meb.gov.tr/ProgramDetay.aspx?PID=332.
  90. Moody, A. K. (2010). Using electronic books in the classroom to enhance emergent literacy skills in young children. Journal of Literacy and Technology, 11(4), 22–52.Google Scholar
  91. Morgan, P. L., & Fuchs, D. (2007). Is there a bidirectional relationship between children’s reading skills and reading motivation? Exceptional Children, 73(2), 165–183.Google Scholar
  92. Morgan, P. L., Fuchs, D., Compton, D. L., Cordray, D. S., & Fuchs, L. S. (2008). Does early reading failure decrease children’s reading motivation? Journal of Learning Disabilities, 41(5), 387–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Muter, V., Hulme, C., Snowling, M. J., & Stevenson, J. (2004). Phonemes, rimes, vocabulary, and grammatical skills as foundations of early reading development: Evidence from a longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 40(5), 665–681.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.40.5.665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Neumann, M. M. (2016). Young children’s use of touch screen tablets for writing and reading at home: Relationships with emergent literacy. Computers & Education, 97, 61–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Onatsu-Arvilommi, T., & Nurmi, J. E. (2000). The role of task avoidant and task-focused behaviors in the development of reading and mathematical skills during the first school year: A cross-lagged longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92, 478–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Owusu-Acheaw, M. (2016). Social media usage and its impact on reading habits: A study of Koforidua Polytechnic students. International Journal of Social Media and Interactive Learning Environments, 4(3), 211–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Park, H. (2008). Home literacy environments and children’s reading performance: A comparative study of 25 countries. Educational Research and Evaluation, 14(6), 489–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Patten, M. L. (2014). Questionnaire research: A practical guide. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  99. Petscher, Y. (2010). A meta-analysis of the relationship between student attitudes towards reading and achievement in reading. Journal of Research in Reading, 33(4), 335–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Pigada, M., & Schmitt, N. (2006). Vocabulary acquisition from extensive reading: A case study. Reading in a Foreign Language, 18(1), 1–28.Google Scholar
  101. Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants part 1. On the Horizon, 9(5), 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). (2009). Assessment framework key competencies in reading, mathematics and science. Retrieved from https://www.oecd.org/pisa/pisaproducts/44455820.pdf.
  103. Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). (2012). Pısa 2012 results: What students know and can do. Retrieved from https://www.oecd.org/pisa/keyfindings/pisa-2012-results.htm.
  104. Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). (2015). PISA results in focus. Retrived from https://www.oecd.org/pisa/pisa-2015-results-in-focus.pdf.
  105. Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS). (2001). PIRLS 2001 International Report. Retrieved from https://timss.bc.edu/pirls2001i/pdf/p1_ir_book.pdf.
  106. Quinn, J. M., Wagner, R. K., Petscher, Y., & Lopez, D. (2015). Developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension: A latent change score modeling study. Child Development, 86(1), 159–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Richter, A., & Courage, M. L. (2017). Comparing electronic and paper storybooks for preschoolers: Attention, engagement, and recall. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 48, 92–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Robinson, H. M., & Weintraub, S. (1973). Research related to children’s interests and to developmental values of reading. Library Trends, 22, 81–108.Google Scholar
  109. Roy Morgan Research (2014). Reading between the lines: Books and digital not so incompatible. Retrieved from http://www.roymorgan.com/findings/5692-books-digital-not-so-incompatible-201407210009.
  110. Ruan, Y., Georgiou, G. K., Song, S., Li, Y., & Shu, H. (2018). Does writing system influence the associations between phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and reading? A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 110(2), 180–202.  https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Rvachew, S., Rees, K., Carolan, E., & Nadig, A. (2017). Improving emergent literacy with school-based shared reading: Paper versus ebooks. International Journal of Child-computer Interaction, 12, 24–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68–78.  https://doi.org/10.1037/110003-066X.55.1.68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Saracho, O. N., & Dayton, C. M. (1989). A factor analytic study of reading attitudes in young children. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 14(1), 12–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Scarborough, H. S. (2001). Connecting early language and literacy to later reading (dis)abilities: Evidence, theory, and practice. In S. Neuman & D. Dickinson (Eds.), Handbook for research in early literacy (pp. 97–110). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  115. Schaughency, E., Suggate, S., & Reese, E. (2017). Links between early oral narrative and decoding skills and later reading in a New Zealand sample. Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties, 22(2), 109–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Schiefele, U., & Löweke, S. (2018). The nature, development, and effects of elementary students’ reading motivation profiles. Reading Research Quarterly, 53(4), 405–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Schiefele, U., & Schaffner, E. (2013). Die Lesemotivation von Grundschülerinnen und -schülern der sechsten Klassenstufe: Ergebnisse einer Interviewstudie [Reading motivation of elementary school students: Results from an interview study]. Psychologie in Erziehung und Unterricht, 60(3), 214–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Schiefele, U., Schaffner, E., Möller, J., & Wigfield, A. (2012). Dimensions of reading motivation and their relation to reading behavior and competence. Reading Research Quarterly, 47(4), 427–463.Google Scholar
  119. Schunk, D. H., Pintrich, P. R., & Meece, J. L. (2008). Motivation in education: Theory, research, and applications. Upper Saddle River: Pearson.Google Scholar
  120. Sefton-Green, J., Marsh, J., Erstad, O., & Flewitt, R. (2016). Establishing a research agenda for the digital literacy practices of young children. A White Paper for COST Action IS1410. Retrieved from http://www.lse.ac. uk/media-and-communications/assets/documents/research/projects/p4df/COST-2016.pdf.
  121. Smith, M. C. (1990). A longitudinal investigation of reading attitude development from childhood to adulthood. The Journal of Educational Research, 83(4), 215–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Snow, C. E., Burns, M. S., & Griffin, P. (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children committee on the prevention of reading difficulties in young children. Washington: National Research Council.Google Scholar
  123. Snow, C. E., & Matthews, T. J. (2016). Reading and language in the early grades. The Future of Children, 26, 57–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Solari, E. J., Grimm, R. P., McIntyre, N. S., & Denton, C. A. (2018). Reading comprehension development in at-risk vs. not at-risk first grade readers: The differential roles of listening comprehension, decoding, and fluency. Learning and Individual Differences, 65, 195–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Song, S., Georgiou, G. K., Su, M., & Hua, S. (2016). How well do phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming correlate with Chinese reading accuracy and fluency? A meta-analysis. Scientific Studies of Reading, 20(2), 99–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Sonnenschein, S., & Munsterman, K. (2002). The influence of home-based reading interactions on 5-year-olds’ reading motivations and early literacy development. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 17, 318–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Sparks, R. L., Patton, J., & Murdoch, A. (2014). Early reading success and its relationship to reading achievement and reading volume: Replication of ‘10 years later'. Reading and Writing, 27(1), 189–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Sperling, R. A., & Head, D. M. (2002). Reading attitudes and literacy skills in prekindergarten and kindergarten children. Early Childhood Education Journal, 29(4), 233–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Stanley, C. T., Petscher, Y., & Catts, H. (2018). A longitudinal investigation of direct and indirect links between reading skills in kindergarten and reading comprehension in tenth grade. Reading and Writing, 31(1), 133–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Stanovich, K. E. (2009). Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy. Journal of Education, 189(1–2), 23–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Statista (2018). Reading habits in the U.S. Retrieved from https://www.statista.com/statistics/622525/time-reading-us/.
  132. Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and technique. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  133. Stutz, F., Schaffner, E., & Schiefele, U. (2016). Relations among reading motivation, reading amount, and reading comprehension in the early elementary grades. Learning and Individual Differences, 45, 101–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Sulzby, E., & Teale, W. H. (1991). The development of the young child and the emergence of literacy. In J. Flood, D. Lapp, J. R. Squire, & J. M. Jensen (Eds.), Handbook of research on teaching the English language arts (pp. 273–285). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  135. Taboada, A., Tonks, S. M., Wigfield, A., & Guthrie, J. T. (2009). Effects of motivational and cognitive variables on reading comprehension. Reading and Writing, 22, 85–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Tarchi, C. (2017). Comprehending and recalling from text: The role of motivational and cognitive factors. Issues in Educational Research, 27(3), 600–619.Google Scholar
  137. Taylor, A. Z., & Graham, S. (2007). An examination of the relationship between achievement values and perceptions of barriers among low-SES African American and Latino students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 52–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Unrau, N., & Schlackman, J. (2006). Motivation and its relationship with reading achievement in an urban middle school. Journal of Educational Research, 100, 81–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Vaknin-Nusbaum, V., Nevo, E., Brande, S., & Gambrell, L. (2018). Developmental aspects of reading motivation and reading achievement among second grade low achievers and typical readers. Journal of Research in Reading, 41(3), 438–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Vinterek, M., Winberg, M. T., Tegmark, M., Alatalo, T., & Liberg, C. (2018). Amount of text read at school and the motivation for reading: A large scale study in grade 6 and 9. In European conference on educational research, Bolzano, Italy, September 47, 2018. Retrieved from http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1254213/FULLTEXT01.pdf.
  141. Vygotsky, L. S. (1967). Play and its role in the mental development of the child. Soviet Psychology, 5(3), 6–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Wagner, D. A., & Spratt, J. E. (1988). Intergenerational literacy: Effects of parental literacy and attitudes on children’s reading achievement in Morocco. Human Development, 31(6), 359–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Walgermo, B. R., Foldnes, N., Uppstad, P. H., & Solheim, O. J. (2018). Developmental dynamics of early reading skill, literacy interest and readers’ self-concept within the first year of formal schooling. Reading and Writing, 31(6), 1379–1399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Wang, J. H. Y., & Guthrie, J. T. (2004). Modeling the effects of intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, amount of reading, and past reading achievement on text comprehension between US and Chinese students. Reading Research Quarterly, 39(2), 162–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Whitehurst, G. J., & Lonigan, C. J. (1998). Child development and emergent literacy. Child Development, 69(3), 848–872.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Wigfield, A. (1997). Children’s motivation for reading and reading engagement. In J. T. Guthrie & A. Wigfield (Eds.), Reading engagement Motivating readers through integrated instruction (pp. 14–33). Newark: International Reading Association.Google Scholar
  147. Wigfield, A., & Guthrie, J. T. (1995). Dimensions of children’s motivations for reading: An initial study (Research Rep. No. 34). Athens, GA: National Reading Research Center. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed. gov/fulltext/ED384010.pdf.
  148. Wigfield, A., & Guthrie, J. T. (1997). Relations of children’s motivation for reading to the amount and breadth of their reading. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 420–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Wigfield, A., Guthrie, J. T., Perencevich, K. C., Taboada, A., Klauda, S. L., McRae, A., et al. (2008). Role of reading engagement in mediating effects of reading comprehension instruction on reading outcomes. Psychology in the Schools, 45(5), 432–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Wigfield, A., Guthrie, J. T., Tonks, S., & Perencevich, K. C. (2004). Children’s motivation for reading: Domain specificity and instructional influences. The Journal of Educational Research, 97(6), 299–310.  https://doi.org/10.3200/JOER.97.6.299-310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Wood, E., & Attfield, J. (2005). Play, learning and the early childhood curriculum. Thousand Oaks: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Yildirim, I., Ergene, T., & Munir, K. (2006). High rates of depressive symptoms among senior high school students preparing for national university entrance examination in Turkey. International Journal on School Disaffection, 4(2), 35–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Zheng, G., Schwanenflugel, P. J., & Rogers, S. M. (2016). Emergent motivation to read in prekindergarten children. Reading Psychology, 37(3), 392–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Zimmerman, B. J., Bandura, A., & Martinez-Pons, M. (1992). Self-motivation for academic attainment: The role of self-efficacy beliefs and personal goal setting. American Educational Research Journal, 29(3), 663–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Early Childhood EducationAhi Evran UniversityKırşehirTurkey

Personalised recommendations