Advertisement

Internet addiction among college students: Some causes and effects

  • Meltem Huri BaturayEmail author
  • Sacip Toker
Article

Abstract

Internet addiction among college students in terms of causes and effects are investigated. Correlation study method is utilized; structural equation modelling is applied to analyze the data. There are fifteen hypotheses generated for the model. The data is collected via numerous instruments proven as reliable and valid by the previous studies. There are 159 undergraduate students as participants of the study. Antecedent variables are game addiction, bad relationships with friends, family and professors, neglecting daily chores, hindrance of sleep pattern, use internet for researching, weekly internet use hours, leisure time activities, reading and playing computer games. Consequence variables are self-esteem, self-confidence, social self-efficacy, loneliness, and academic self-efficacy. The results indicates that game addiction, neglecting daily chores, bad relationships with professors are significantly associated with internet addiction. Internet addiction decreases one’s self-esteem, self-confidence, social self-efficacy, academic self-efficacy and triggers loneliness. Parents, professors and educational institutions may be illuminated about prevention or monitoring of internet addiction. The current study investigates Internet addiction with respect to its implications for social behavioral, and psychological phenomenon but not in a clinical sense. Hence, studies on Internet addiction merely concentrate on antecedents and features that may cause more addiction; however, both antecedents and consequences are not examined. The value of the current study is to provide more systematic, comprehensive, and theory-based empirical causations via structural equation models. The model may help to diagnose Internet Addiction and illuminate college students its potential harmful socio-psychological consequences.

Keywords

Internet addiction Game addiction Self-esteem Self-confidence Social and academic self-efficacy Loneliness 

Notes

References

  1. Adiele, I., & Olatokun, W. (2014). Prevalence and determinants of Internet addiction among adolescents. Computers in Human Behavior, 31, 100–110.Google Scholar
  2. Akın, A. (2007). “Öz-güven Ölçeğinin Geliştirilmesi ve Psikometrik Özellikleri” [The development and psychometric characteristics of the self-confidence scale]. Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 7(2), 167–176.Google Scholar
  3. Armstrong, L., Phillips, J. G., & Saling, L. L. (2000). Potential determinants of heavier internet usage. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 53(4), 537–550.Google Scholar
  4. Bai, Y.-M., Lin, C.-C., & Chen, J.-Y. (2001). Internet addiction disorder among clients of a virtual clinic. Psychiatric Services, 52(10), 1397–1397.Google Scholar
  5. Beard, K. W. (2005). Internet addiction: A review of current assessment techniques and potential assessment questions. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 8(1), 7–14.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  6. Beard, K. W., & Wolf, E. M. (2001). Modification in the proposed diagnostic criteria for internet addiction. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 4(3), 377–383.Google Scholar
  7. Berry, M. J. A., & Linoff, G. S. (2000). Mastering data mining. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  8. Brown, T. A. (2014). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York: Guilford Publications.Google Scholar
  9. Byrne, B. M. (2013). Structural equation modeling with LISREL, PR, and SIMPLIS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. Mahwah: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  10. Byrne, B. (2016). Structural equation modeling with AMOS. New York: Routledge.  https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315757421.
  11. Byun, S., Ruffini, C., Mills, J. E., Douglas, A. C., Niang, M., Stepchenkova, S., & Atallah, M. (2009). Internet addiction: Metasynthesis of 1996-2006 quantitative research. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 12(2), 203–207.Google Scholar
  12. Çakır, Ö., Ayas, T., & Horzum, M. B. (2011). An investigation of university students’ internet and game addiction with respect to several variables. Ankara University, Journal of Faculty of Educational Sciences, 44(2), 95–117.Google Scholar
  13. Cao, F., & Su, L. (2007). Internet addiction among Chinese adolescents: Prevalence and psychological features. Child: Care, Health and Development, 33(3), 275–281.Google Scholar
  14. Caplan, S. E. (2002). Problematic internet use and psychosocial well-being: Development of a theory-based cognitive–behavioral measurement instrument. Computers in Human Behavior, 18(5), 553–575.Google Scholar
  15. Caplan, S. E. (2003). Preference for online social interaction a theory of problematic internet use and psychosocial well-being. Communication Research, 30(6), 625–648.Google Scholar
  16. Caplan, S. E. (2005). A social skill account of problematic internet use. Journal of Communication, 55(4), 721–736.Google Scholar
  17. Carli, V., Durkee, T., Wasserman, D., Hadlaczky, G., Despalins, R., Kramarz, E., et al. (2012). The association between pathological internet use and comorbid psychopathology: A systematic review. Psychopathology, 46(1), 1–13.Google Scholar
  18. Chak, K., & Leung, L. (2004). Shyness and locus of control as predictors of internet addiction and internet use. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 7(5), 559–570.Google Scholar
  19. Chen, Y.-F., & Peng, S. S. (2008). University students' internet use and its relationships with academic performance, interpersonal relationships, psychosocial adjustment, and self-evaluation. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 11(4), 467–469.Google Scholar
  20. Chou, C. (2001). Internet heavy use and addiction among Taiwanese college students: An online interview study. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 4(5), 573–585.Google Scholar
  21. Chou, C., Condron, L., & Belland, J. C. (2005). A review of the research on internet addiction. Educational Psychology Review, 17(4), 363–388.Google Scholar
  22. Cole, S. H., & Hooley, J. M. (2013). Clinical and personality correlates of MMO gaming: Anxiety and absorption in problematic internet use. Social Science Computer Review, 31(4), 424–436.Google Scholar
  23. Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative (4th ed.). Boston: Pearson.Google Scholar
  24. D.E.A.R. (n.d.). Drop Everything and Read, available at: http://www.dropeverythingandread.com/NationalDEARday.html. Accessed 3 Sep 2015.
  25. Demetrovics, Z., Szeredi, B., & Rózsa, S. (2008). The three-factor model of internet addiction: The development of the problematic internet use questionnaire. Behavior Research Methods, 40(2), 563–574.Google Scholar
  26. Demir, A. (1989). UCLA Yalnızlık Ölçeği’nin Geçerlik ve Güvenirliği. Psikoloji Dergisi, 7(23), 14–18.Google Scholar
  27. Dhir, A., Chen, S., & Nieminen, M. (2015). Psychometric validation of the compulsive internet use scale relationship with adolescents’ demographics, ICT accessibility, and problematic ICT use. Social Science Computer Review, 34(2), 197–214.Google Scholar
  28. Diamantopoulos, A., & Siguaw, J. A. (2013). Introducing LISREL: A guide for the uninitiated. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  29. DiNicola, M. D. (2004). Pathological internet use among college students: The prevalence of pathological internet use and its correlates. Diss. Ohio University, Ohio, US.Google Scholar
  30. Doğan, A. (2013). İnternet Bağımlılığı Yaygınlığı [Prevalence of Internet Addiction]. Unpublished Manuscript, Dokuz Eylül University, İzmir, Turkey.Google Scholar
  31. Fanning, P., & O'Neill, J. T. (1996). The addiction workbook: A step-by-step guide for quitting alcohol and drugs. Oakland: New Harbinger Publications.Google Scholar
  32. Ferraro, G., Caci, B., D'amico, A., & Blasi, M. D. (2006). Internet addiction disorder: An Italian study. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 10(2), 170–175.Google Scholar
  33. Ghassemzadeh, L., Shahraray, M., & Moradi, A. (2008). Prevalence of internet addiction and comparison of internet addicts and non-addicts in Iranian high schools. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 11(6), 731–733.Google Scholar
  34. Griffiths, M. D. (1991). Amusement machine playing in childhood and adolescence: A comparative analysis of video games and fruit machines. Journal of Adolescence, 14(1), 53–73.Google Scholar
  35. Griffiths, M. D. (2000). Does internet and computer "addiction" exist? Some case study evidence. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 3(2), 211–218.Google Scholar
  36. Griffiths, M. D. (2008). Videogame addiction: Further thoughts and observations. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 6(2), 182–185.Google Scholar
  37. Griffiths, M., Kuss, J. D., & King, D. L. (2012). Video game addiction: Past, present and future. Current Psychiatry Reviews, 8(4), 308–318.Google Scholar
  38. Günüç, S. (2009). İnternet bağımlılık ölçeğinin geliştirilmesi ve bazı demografik değişkenler ile internet bağımlılığı arasındaki ilişkilerin incelenmesi [Development of Internet Addiction Scale and scrutinising the relations between the internet addiction and some demographic variables], Master Thesis, Yüzüncü Yıl University, Van, Turkey.Google Scholar
  39. Günüç, S. (2015). Relationships and associations between video game and internet addictions: Is tolerance a symptom seen in all conditions. Computers in Human Behavior, 49(C), 517–525.Google Scholar
  40. Han, J., & Kamber, M. (2000). Data mining: Concepts and techniques. New York: Morgan-Kaufman.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  41. Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., & Mullen, M. R. (2008). Structural equation modelling: Guidelines for determining model fit. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 6(1), 53–60.Google Scholar
  42. Horzum, M. B., Aras, T., & Çakır Balta, Ö. (2008). Çocuklar için Bilgisayar Oyun Bağımlılığı Ölçeği. Türk Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Dergisi, 3(30), 76–88.Google Scholar
  43. Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1–55.Google Scholar
  44. Huang, R. L., Lu, Z., Liu, J. J., You, Y. M., Pan, Z. Q., Wei, Z., He, Q., & Wang, Z. Z. (2009). Features and predictors of problematic internet use in Chinese college students. Behaviour & Information Technology, 28(5), 485–490.Google Scholar
  45. Jerusalem, M., & Schwarzer, R. (1981). “Fragebogen zur Erfassung von” Selbstwirksamkeit. Skalen zur Befindlichkeit und Persoenlichkeit. Forschungsbericht No. 5. Berlin: Freie Universitaet, Institut fuer Psychologie.Google Scholar
  46. Jiang, Q. (2014). Internet addiction among young people in China: Internet connectedness, online gaming, and academic performance decrement. Internet Research, 24(1), 2–20.Google Scholar
  47. Jiang, Q., & Leung, L. (2012). Effects of individual differences, awareness-knowledge, and acceptance of internet addiction as a health risk on willingness to change internet habits. Social Science Computer Review, 30(2), 170–183.Google Scholar
  48. Johansson, A., & Götestam, K. G. (2004). Internet addiction: Characteristics of a questionnaire and prevalence in Norwegian youth (12–18 years). Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 45(3), 223–229.Google Scholar
  49. Kandell, J. J. (1998). Internet addiction on campus: The vulnerability of college students. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 1(1), 11–17.Google Scholar
  50. Keller, J. M. (1987). The systematic process of motivational design. Performance and Instruction, 26(9–10), 1–8.Google Scholar
  51. Keller, J. M. (2009). Motivational Design for Learning and Performance: The ARCS model approach. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.Google Scholar
  52. Kim, J., LaRose, R., & Peng, W. (2009). Loneliness as the cause and the effect of problematic internet use: The relationship between internet use and psychological well-being. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 12(4), 451–455.Google Scholar
  53. Ko, C.-H., Yen, J.-Y., Chen, C.-C., Chen, S.-H., & Yen, C.-F. (2005). Gender differences and related factors affecting online gaming addiction among Taiwanese adolescents. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 193(4), 273–277.Google Scholar
  54. Ko, C.-H., Yen, J.-Y., Yen, C.-F., Lin, H.-C., & Yang, M.-J. (2007). Factors predictive for incidence and remission of internet addiction in Young adolescents: A prospective study. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 10(4), 545–551.Google Scholar
  55. Ko, C.-H., Yen, J.-Y., Chen, S.-H., Yang, M.-J., Lin, H.-C., & Yen, C.-F. (2009). Proposed diagnostic criteria and the screening and diagnosing tool of internet addiction in college students. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 50(4), 378–384.Google Scholar
  56. Ko, C. H., Wang, P. W., Liu, T. L., Yen, C. F., Chen, C. S., & Yen, J. Y. (2014). Bidirectional associations between family factors and internet addiction among adolescents in a prospective investigation. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 69(4), 192–200.Google Scholar
  57. Kormas, G., Critselis, E., Janikian, M., Kafetzis, D., & Tsitsika, A. (2011). Risk factors and psychosocial characteristics of potential problematic and problematic internet use among adolescents: A cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 11, 595.Google Scholar
  58. Kraut, R., Patterson, M., Lundmark, V., Kiesler, S., Mukophadhyay, T., & Scherlis, W. (1998). Internet paradox. A social technology that reduces social involvement and psychological well-being? American Psychologist, 53(9), 1017–1031.Google Scholar
  59. Kubey, R. W., Lavin, M. J., & Barrows, J. R. (2001). Internet use and collegiate academic performance decrements: Early findings. Journal of Communication, 51(2), 366–382.Google Scholar
  60. Kurtaran, G. T. (2008). Examining the variables predicted internet addiction. Master’s Thesis, Mersin University, Mersin, Turkey.Google Scholar
  61. Kuss, D. J., Griffiths, M. D., Karila, L., & Billieux, J. (2014). Internet addiction: A systematic review of epidemiological research for the last decade. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 20(25), 4026–4052.Google Scholar
  62. Lei, L., & Hongli, L. (2003). Definition and measurement on pathological internet use. Advances in Psychological Science, 11(01), 73–77.Google Scholar
  63. Leung, L., & Lee, P. S. (2012). Impact of internet literacy, internet addiction symptoms, and internet activities on academic performance. Social Science Computer Review, 30(4), 403–418.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  64. Liu, C.-Y., & Kuo, F.-Y. (2007). A study of internet addiction through the lens of the interpersonal theory. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 10(6), 799–804.Google Scholar
  65. Loytsker, J., & Aiello, J. R. (1997). Internet addiction and its personality correlates. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, Washington, DC Vol. 11.Google Scholar
  66. Miles, J., & Shevlin, M. (2007). A time and a place for incremental fit indices. Personality and Individual Differences, 42(5), 869–874.Google Scholar
  67. Morahan-Martin, J. (1999). The relationship between loneliness and internet use and abuse. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 2(5), 431–439.Google Scholar
  68. Morahan-Martin, J., & Schumacher, P. (2000). Incidence and correlates of pathological internet use among college students. Computers in Human Behavior, 16(1), 13–29.Google Scholar
  69. Müller, K. W., Glaesmer, H., Brähler, E., Woelfling, K., & Beutel, M. E. (2014). Prevalence of internet addiction in the general population: Results from a German population-based survey. Behaviour & Information Technology, 33(7), 757–766.Google Scholar
  70. Nalwa, K., & Anand, A. P. (2003). Internet addiction in students: A cause of concern. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 6(6), 653–656.Google Scholar
  71. Ni, X., Yan, H., Chen, S., & Liu, Z. (2009). Factors influencing internet addiction in a sample of Freshmen University students in China. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 12(3), 327–330.Google Scholar
  72. Park, S. K., Kim, J. Y., & Cho, C. B. (2007). Prevalence of internet addiction and correlations with family factors among south Korean adolescents. Adolescence, 43(172), 895–909.Google Scholar
  73. Pişkin, M. (1996). Self-esteem and locus of control of secondary school children both in England and Turkey. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Leicester.Google Scholar
  74. Pratarelli, M. E., Browne, B. L., & Johnson, K. (1999). The bits and bytes of computer/internet addiction: A factor analytic approach. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 31(2), 305–314.Google Scholar
  75. Prisbell, M. (1988). Dating competence as related to levels of loneliness. Communication Reports, 1(2), 54–59.Google Scholar
  76. Rehbein, F., & Mößle, T. (2013). Video game and internet addiction: Is there a need for differentiation? SUCHT-Zeitschrift Für Wissenschaft Und Praxis/Journal of Addiction Research and Practice, 59(3), 129–142.Google Scholar
  77. Rumpf, H. J., Vermulst, A. A., Bischof, A., Kastirke, N., Gürtler, D., Bischof, G., Meerkerk, G. J., John, U., & Meyer, C. (2014). Occurence of internet addiction in a general population sample: A latent class analysis. European Addiction Research, 20(4), 159–166.Google Scholar
  78. Russell, D. W. (1996). UCLA loneliness scale (version 3): Reliability, validity, and factor structure. Journal of Personality Assessment, 66(1), 20–40.Google Scholar
  79. Russell, D. W., Peplau, L. A., & Ferguson, M. L. (1978). Developing a measure of loneliness. Journal of Personality Assessment, 42(3), 290–294.Google Scholar
  80. Sanders, C. E., Field, T. M., Diego, M., & Kaplan, M. (2000). The relationship of internet use to depression and social isolation among adolescents. Adolescence, 35(138), 237–242.Google Scholar
  81. Sherer, K. (1997). College life on-line: Healthy and unhealthy internet use. Journal of College Student Development, 38(6), 655–665.Google Scholar
  82. Shotton, M. A. (1991). The costs and benefits of ‘computer addiction’. Behaviour & Information Technology, 10(3), 219–230.Google Scholar
  83. Sinkkonen, H.-M., Puhakka, H., & Meriläinen, M. (2014). Internet use and addiction among Finnish adolescents (15-19 years). Journal of Adolescence, 37(2), 123–131.Google Scholar
  84. Siomos, K. E., Dafouli, E. D., Braimiotis, D. A., Mouzas, O. D., & Angelopoulos, N. V. (2008). Internet addiction among Greek adolescent students. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 11(6), 653–657.Google Scholar
  85. Smahel, D., Brown, B. B., & Blinka, L. (2012). Associations between online friendship and internet addiction among adolescents and emerging adults. Developmental Psychology, 48(2), 381–388.Google Scholar
  86. Stats, I. W. (2014). World Internet Users and 2014 Population Stats available at: http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm. Accessed 02 March 2015.
  87. Steiger, J. H. (2007). Understanding the limitations of global fit assessment in structural equation modeling. Personality and Individual Differences, 42(5), 893–898.Google Scholar
  88. Suler, J. (2004). Computer and cyberspace “addiction”. International Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies, 1(4), 359–362.Google Scholar
  89. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  90. Tahiroglu, A. Y., Celik, G. G., Uzel, M., Ozcan, N., & Avci, A. (2008). Internet use among Turkish adolescents. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 11(5), 537–543.Google Scholar
  91. Tang, J., Yu, Y., Du, Y., Ma, Y., Zhang, D., & Wang, J. (2014). Prevalence of internet addiction and its association with stressful life events and psychological symptoms among adolescent internet users. Addictive Behaviors, 39(3), 744–747.Google Scholar
  92. Tokunaga, R. S., & Rains, S. A. (2010). An evaluation of two characterizations of the relationships between problematic internet use, time spent using the internet, and psychosocial problems. Human Communication Research, 36(4), 512–545.Google Scholar
  93. Tsai, C.-C., & Lin, S. S. (2001). Analysis of attitudes toward computer networks and internet addiction of Taiwanese adolescents. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 4(3), 373–376.Google Scholar
  94. Vidyachathoth, K. B., Kumar, N. A., & Pai, S. R. (2014). Correlation between affect and internet addiction in undergraduate medical students in Mangalore. Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy, 5(1), 175–178.Google Scholar
  95. Walker, M. B. (1989). Some problems with the concept of “gambling addiction”: Should theories of addiction be generalized to include excessive gambling? Journal of Gambling Behavior, 5(3), 179–200.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  96. Wallace, P. (2014). Internet addiction disorder and youth. EMBO Reports, 15(1), 12–16.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  97. Whang, L. S.-M., Lee, S., & Chang, G. (2003). Internet over-users' psychological profiles: A behavior sampling analysis on internet addiction. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 6(2), 143–150.Google Scholar
  98. Wheaton, B., Muthen, B., Alwin, D. F., & Summers, G. F. (1977). Assessing reliability and stability in panel models. Sociological Methodology, 8, 84–136.Google Scholar
  99. Widyanto, L., & Griffiths, M. (2006). ‘Internet addiction’: A critical review. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 4(1), 31–51.Google Scholar
  100. Widyanto, L., & McMurran, M. (2004). The psychometric properties of the internet addiction test. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 7(4), 443–450.Google Scholar
  101. Witten, I. H., & Frank, E. (2000). Data mining. New York: Morgan-Kaufmann.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  102. Yan, W., Li, Y., & Sui, N. (2014). The relationship between recent stressful life events, personality traits, perceived family functioning and internet addiction among college students. Stress and Health, 30(1), 3–11.Google Scholar
  103. Yang, L., Sun, L., Zhang, Z., Sun, Y., Wu, H., & Ye, D. (2014). Internet addiction, adolescent depression, and the mediating role of life events: Finding from a sample of Chinese adolescents. International Journal of Psychology, 49(5), 342–347.Google Scholar
  104. Yao, M. Z., & Zhong, Z.-J. (2014). Loneliness, social contacts and Internet addiction: A cross-lagged panel study. Computers in Human Behavior, 30, 164–170.Google Scholar
  105. Yao, M. Z., He, J., Ko, D. M., & Pang, K. (2014). The influence of personality, parental behaviors, and self-esteem on internet addiction: A study of Chinese college students. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 17(2), 104–110.Google Scholar
  106. Yen, J.-Y., Yen, C.-F., Chen, C.-C., Chen, S.-H., & Ko, C.-H. (2007). Family factors of internet addiction and substance use experience in Taiwanese adolescents. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 10(3), 323–329.Google Scholar
  107. Yen, C.-F., Chou, W.-J., Liu, T.-L., Yang, P., & Hu, H.-F. (2014). The Association of Internet Addiction Symptoms with anxiety, depression and self-esteem among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 55(7), 1601–1608.Google Scholar
  108. Yılmaz, M., Gürçay, D., & Ekici, G. (2007). Akademik özyeterlik ölçeğinin Türkçe’ye uyarlanması. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 33, 253–259.Google Scholar
  109. Young, K. S. (1998a). Caught in the net: How to recognize the signs of internet addiction--and a winning strategy for recovery. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  110. Young, K. S. (1998b). Internet addiction: The emergence of a new clinical disorder. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 1(3), 237–244.Google Scholar
  111. Young, K. S. (1999). Internet addiction: Symptoms, evaluation and treatment. In Innovations in clinical practice: A source book (Vol. 17, pp. 19–31).Google Scholar
  112. Young, K. S., & Rodgers, R. C. (1998). Internet addiction: Personality traits associated with its development. In Paper presented at the 69th annual meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, Boston.Google Scholar
  113. Young, K. S., & Rogers, R. C. (1998). The relationship between depression and internet addiction. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 1(1), 25–28.Google Scholar
  114. Yung, K., Eickhoff, E., Davis, D. L., Klam, W. P., & Doan, A. P. (2015). Internet addiction disorder and problematic use of Google glass™ in patient treated at a residential substance abuse treatment program. Addictive Behaviors, 41, 58–60.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Foreign Languages, Department of Basic EnglishAtılım UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.School of Engineering, Department of Information SystemsAtılım UniversityAnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations