Documenta Ophthalmologica

, Volume 139, Issue 1, pp 1–9 | Cite as

Comparison of electroretinographic measurements between tabletop and handheld stimulators in healthy subjects

  • Bum G. Kim
  • In B. Chang
  • Kyeong D. Jeong
  • Jae Y. Park
  • Jae S. Kim
  • Je Hyung HwangEmail author
Original Research Article



To compare full-field electroretinography (ffERG) parameters obtained from handheld and tabletop electroretinography (ERG) devices in normal subjects.


Twenty volunteers underwent ffERG using a tabletop and handheld stimulator. The responses obtained from the right eyes were compared. The coefficient of variation and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were derived to assess inter- and intra-individual reliability.


The b-wave in the rod response, a- and b-waves in the maximal combined response, a-wave in the cone response, and the 30-Hz flicker response showed significantly greater amplitudes when recorded with the tabletop stimulator than with the handheld stimulator. The implicit time of response (ITR) in the 30-Hz flicker response was longer when recorded with the handheld stimulator than when recorded with the tabletop stimulator. With regard to amplitude, the ICC indicated moderate-to-high reliability in the measurement of the b-wave in the rod response, and a- and b-waves in the maximal combined response. With regard to ITR, measurement of the b-wave in the rod response and a-wave in the maximal combined response showed moderate-to-high reliability.


Despite the significantly lower ERG amplitude measurements recorded by the handheld stimulator, there were no significant differences in variability between the two stimulators.


Full-field electroretinography Handheld stimulator Normal subjects Tabletop stimulator 



B G Kim, I B Chang contributed equally to this work and both should be considered as first authors. Each of the authors, B G Kim, I B Chang, K D Jeong, J Y Park, J S Kim, and J H Hwang has contributed to the development of the study design, data collection and analysis, and writing of the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

We have no conflict of interest to declare.

Statement of human rights

The present study was a cross-over comparative study, which was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The study was conducted after receiving approval from the Institutional Review Board (IRB) at Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital (IRB approval number: 2017-07-023) and after receiving voluntary consent from all participants.

Statement on the welfare of animals

This study does not include animal study.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ophthalmology, Sanggye Paik HospitalInje University College of MedicineSeoulKorea
  2. 2.Department of Ophthalmology, Busan Paik HospitalInje University College of MedicineBusanKorea
  3. 3.Asan-si Healthcare CenterAsan-siKorea

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