Fisetin rescues retinal functions by suppressing inflammatory response in a DBA/2J mouse model of glaucoma
Glaucoma is a common chronic neurodegenerative disease, which could lead to visual loss. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether fisetin, a natural flavone with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, is able to alleviate glaucoma.
We employed a DBA/2J mouse model which was treated with or without fisetin. Pattern electroretinogram (P-ERG), visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and intraocular pressure (IOP) were evaluated. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to measure the expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. Western blotting was performed to assess the activation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB).
We found that DBA/2J mice treated with fisetin (10-30 mg/kg) showed improved P-ERG and VEP amplitudes and reduced IOP compared to untreated DBA/2J mice. In addition, there were more survived retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and less activated microglia in fisetin-treated DBA/2J mice than those in untreated mice. Furthermore, secreted protein levels and mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were significantly repressed by fisetin. The phosphorylated p65 level in the nucleus was dramatically reduced in fisetin-treated mice compared to it in untreated mice. Our results demonstrate that fisetin may exert its function through regulating cytokine productions and inhibiting NF-κB activation in the retina.
In conclusion, fisetin is able to promote the visual functions of DBA/2J mice by inhibiting NF-κB activation.
KeywordsGlaucoma Fisetin Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) Nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) DBA/2J mouse
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving animal were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee. Animal studies were approved by the People’s Hospital of Rizhao, and all efforts were made to minimize the number of animals used and their suffering.
Statements of human rights
There is no human participation in this study.
Statement on the welfare of animals
All animal experiments were conducted according to the guidelines in our institute and all efforts were made to minimize the nubmer of animals used and their suffering.
Not applicable. There is no human participation in this study.
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