Early Predictors of Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Non-obese Versus Obese Patients
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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is regarded as a risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the association between non-obese NAFLD and CVD has not been well established.
We aimed to compare the CVD risk between non-obese and obese NAFLD patients, and explored the factors associated with subclinical atherosclerosis.
Consecutive NAFLD patients estimated by magnetic resonance imaging-based proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF) were recruited. Liver fat content (LFC) and liver stiffness were measured with MRI-PDFF and shear wave elastography, respectively. CVD risk was estimated by atherosclerosis index (AI), carotid intima-media thickness, carotid plaque, and Framingham risk score (FRS).
This study included 543 NAFLD patients. The presence of carotid intima-media thickening and carotid plaque, FRS, and AI were comparable between non-obese and obese patients. Age increased per 10 years (OR 9.68; P < 0.001) and liver fibrosis (liver stiffness > 6.1 kPa, OR 4.42; P = 0.004) were significant factors associated with carotid intima-media thickening in non-obese patients, while age increased per 10 years (OR 2.02; P < 0.001), liver fibrosis (OR 2.18; P = 0.039), and LFC > 10% (OR 2.29; P = 0.021) were independent predictors in obese patients. Only elevated triglyceride was significantly associated with carotid plaque in non-obese patients (OR 2.42; P = 0.033), while age increased per 10 years (OR 1.77; P = 0.002) and LFC > 10% (OR 2.83; P = 0.019) were significant predictors in obese patients.
Liver stiffness and age were strongly predictive of subclinical atherosclerosis in all NAFLD, while LFC was an additional predictor in obese NAFLD patients. Our findings highlight that early CVD screening strategy should be established for NAFLD patients according to different BMIs.
KeywordsCardiovascular diseases Liver fibrosis Liver fat content Non-obese nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
We are grateful to Professor Aihua Lin in The Public Health School of Sun Yat-sen University for his assistance in statistical analysis of this study.
This study is funded by Chinese Foundation for Hepatitis Prevention and Control (TQGB20140083), Guangdong Science and Technology Department (2013B021800290, 2014A020212118, 2017A020215015), National Natural Science Foundation of China (81870404, 81670518, 81170392), and Medical Scientific Research Foundation of Guangdong Province (A2019496).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
They authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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