Digestive Diseases and Sciences

, Volume 64, Issue 12, pp 3440–3445 | Cite as

HCCs and HCAs in Non-cirrhotic Patients: What You See May Not Be Enough

  • Christina LingEmail author
  • Sameen Khalid
  • David Martin
  • Joshua Hanson
  • Daniel Castresana
  • Denis McCarthy

Case Presentations

Case 1 A previously healthy 16-year-old man was initially evaluated in the emergency department for traumatic injuries following a high-impact motor vehicle accident. He was a bodybuilder who used anabolic steroids. He denied abdominal or back pain. His physical examination was significant for a palpable liver edge. Routine laboratory tests including liver function tests were unremarkable. A computed tomographic (CT) scan showed an unsuspected mass in the right lobe of the liver. A subsequent triple-phase magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the abdomen showed a 15.1 × 15.0 × 10.8 cm mass in the right hepatic lobe that exhibited heterogeneous arterial and thin capsular enhancement, concerning for a hepatic neoplasm (Fig.  1). He underwent partial hepatectomy; the resected surgical specimen showed a well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma that on immunohistochemical staining (Fig.  2a) showed β-catenin activation via aberrant nuclear expression. The tumor was...


Hepatocellular carcinoma Hepatic adenoma Non-cirrhotic β-catenin Anabolic steroids Contraceptives Glycogen storage disease Liver transplantation 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christina Ling
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sameen Khalid
    • 1
  • David Martin
    • 2
  • Joshua Hanson
    • 2
  • Daniel Castresana
    • 1
  • Denis McCarthy
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Gastroenterology and HepatologyUniversity of New Mexico School of MedicineAlbuquerqueUSA
  2. 2.Department of PathologyUniversity of New Mexico School of MedicineAlbuquerqueUSA

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