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The Role of Gastrointestinal-Related Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins as Biomarkers in Gastrointestinal Diseases

  • Shaun S. C. Ho
  • Jacqueline I. Keenan
  • Andrew S. DayEmail author
Review
  • 138 Downloads

Abstract

The fatty acid-binding proteins play a major role in intracellular transportation of long-chain fatty acids. Nine fatty acid-binding proteins have been identified, with each having individual tissue-specific functions in addition to regulation of fatty acids. This review focuses on the three fatty acid-binding proteins found in the gastrointestinal tract and discusses their role as diagnostic or disease monitoring markers in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis, acute mesenteric ischemia, celiac disease, and inflammatory bowel disease. Of these three fatty acid-binding proteins, intestinal fatty acid-binding protein is of the most interest due to its exclusive expression in the gastrointestinal tract. The elevation of intestinal fatty acid-binding protein in blood and urine reflects enterocyte damage, regardless of the underlying cause. The short half-life of intestinal fatty acid-binding protein also means it is a relatively sensitive marker. In contrast, there is currently less evidence to support liver fatty acid-binding protein and ileal bile acid-binding protein as sensitive biomarkers in these conditions. More extensive studies with specific endpoints are required to validate the roles of these fatty acid-binding proteins in gastrointestinal diseases.

Keywords

Intestinal fatty acid-binding protein Liver fatty acid-binding protein Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis Acute mesenteric ischemia Celiac disease Inflammatory bowel disease 

Notes

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Disclosure

SSCH is supported by a Freemasons Paediatric Postgraduate Scholarship.

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PaediatricsUniversity of Otago ChristchurchChristchurchNew Zealand
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryUniversity of Otago ChristchurchChristchurchNew Zealand

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