RETRACTED ARTICLE: CD109 Mediates Cell Survival in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for 75–80 % of primary liver cancer, and usually arises after years of liver disease. Thus it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms which drive or mediate the development of HCC.
In this work, we examined whether CD109 was associated with a poor prognosis in HCC and explored possible underlying mechanisms.
We examined the CD109 and Ki67 expression levels in 97 patients with HCC using immunohistochemistry. CD109 levels in HCC cells were down-regulated by shRNA transfection. The cycle progression and cell proliferation status of HCC cells were evaluated by flow cytometry and CCK-8 assay. The effect of CD109 on proliferation and apoptosis was investigated by western blot and TUNEL activity assays.
The CD109 protein was up-regulated in HCC tissue compared with adjacent noncancerous tissue. CD109 expression levels in the 97 patients with HCC were positively correlated with histological grade. Univariate and multivariate survival analysis revealed that CD109 was a significant predictor of overall survival among HCC patients. CD109 shRNA knockdown delayed the G1–S phase transition, abrogated cell proliferation, and increased cell apoptosis. Furthermore, CD109 impaired TGF-β/Smad signaling through control of p-smad2.
CD109 promoted HCC proliferation and predicted poor prognosis. In addition, CD109 expression was associated with anti-apoptosis in HCC cells.
KeywordsCD109 HCC Prognosis Proliferation Apoptosis
This work was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program, No. 2012CB822104), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81202368), Technology Innovation Program of Nantong University (YKC14055, YKC15052), Technology Innovation Program of Jiangsu Province (KYZZ15_0351), and a project funded by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD).
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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